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Chile Under Spanish Rule

Chile Under Spanish Rule

The Spanish conquest of Chile was much more eventful and tiring than it had been in the other South American regions; which could never be said to be completely safe and peaceful, still for two centuries after the first settlement, due to the struggle against the Araucani, a salient fact of the colonial period in Chile. Even the very beginning of the Spanish penetration was not very happy. Diego de Almagro’s expedition (1535-1537) failed, and the impression was such that…

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Chile National and Foreign Trade

Chile National and Foreign Trade

Internal trade. – The prosperity of the mines, metallurgical workshops and nitrate producing areas has completely renewed the economic life of the town thanks to the association established between the nitrate producing provinces and those with agricultural and pastoral production that feed them. In addition to absorbing the overabundant labor force of central Chile, northern Chile consumes its flours, wines, livestock and fodder. The land of wheat and vineyards thus collects a part of the export value of copper and…

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Chile Mining Products

Chile Mining Products

One of the most conspicuous resources of Chile is given by mineral products, whose value was 1,178,000,000 pesos in 1913, and exceeded two billion in 1929. Of this total, about 55% is given by saltpeter, 35% from copper and less than 10% from all other products combined. This complex is divided as follows: 52.4% to the province of Antofagasta; 23.4% to the province of Tarapacá; 1.4% to the province of Colchagua; 6.4% to the province of Atacama; 2.7% to the…

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Chile Indigenous People

Chile Indigenous People

According to simplyyellowpages, the remains of the ancient indigenous population today gravitate mainly in the central and southern region of the country, south of the Bío-Bío river, gradually descending to the canals of Tierra del Fuego. However, it would be difficult, starting from the current one, to reconstruct the disposition of the ethnic groups as it was at the time of the Spanish conquest. Thus also the cultural heritage of the indigenous people, as it is today, bears the traces…

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Chile Geology and Morphology

Chile Geology and Morphology

As a whole, Chile, an essentially mountainous country, consists of the western side of the Andes, a series of secondary reliefs parallel to the coast and a series of longitudinal furrows between the latter and the Andes. A first division, based on the climatic characteristics, which will be discussed later, allows us to distinguish: northern Chile with very little rainfall and sometimes presenting a desert aspect; Central Chile, a land of temperate crops, and southern Chile, cold and humid, covered…

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Chile Geography and Population

Chile Geography and Population

Chile State of South America. It borders to the North with Peru, to the East with Bolivia and Argentina ; to the S and to the West it is bathed by the Pacific Ocean. The territory stretches for approximately 4200 km in the sense of latitude and does not exceed 400 km in the sense of longitude, giving an extremely developed perimeter with respect to the enclosed surface, and generating a significant amount of problems (communications, defense). Physical characters The…

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Chile Ethnography

Chile Ethnography

Under no circumstances, then, would the idea of ​​Latcham, of an original origin of the Araucanians from Argentina, be acceptable; more simply, it is a more or less profound acculturation carried out by way of osmosis through the Andean passes through an intensive nomadism, which has created real communicating compartments (e.g., the Chilean province of Cautín homogeneous to the Argentine Neuquén). But as for the substantial determinants, the Araucan heritage (wooden sculpture, exposure of the corpse on elevated frames and…

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Chile Demographics, Distribution and Population Density

Chile Demographics, Distribution and Population Density

Until 1928 the republic of Chile was divided into 23 provinces and one territory: the new subdivision introduced in that year reduced the provinces to 16, while the territory of Magellano was divided into two parts (Territorî of Magallanes and Aysen). The surface and population data are shown in this table: It should be noted that even in Chile the smaller territorial areas coincide with the territories of more ancient colonization and more populated, while the larger provinces are located…

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Chile Arts and Music

Chile Arts and Music

ARCHITECTURE AND ART The remains of the cultures of the pre-Columbian period relate, in particular, to the culture of El Molle and the more elaborate ones of the Atacameños and Diaguitas. Rare monuments remain from the colonial period. In the 18th century. forms of Bavarian Rococo were introduced in architecture and painting by architects and artists called by Jesuits and in particular by Chile Haymbhausen; the work of the Italian G. Toesca spread a moderate classicism, present until the middle…

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Chile Arts and Literature

Chile Arts and Literature

Literature The coup d’état of 1973 marks, also from the literary point of view, a profound imbalance between the rich production that preceded it and the subsequent one, which has to deal with the strong cultural repression responsible for a limited intellectual growth within of the country. To this must be added the impressive exodus of writers, a phenomenon which, in addition to preventing the drawing of a unitary picture of Chilean literature of the last twenty years, produces a…

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Chile Agriculture and Forestry

Chile Agriculture and Forestry

Breeding. – Livestock breeding, which was the main industry of the country until the middle of the last century, still retains its importance today. According to the latest censuses, the Chilean livestock herd would be made up of about 2,000,000 cattle, four and a half million sheep, 500,000 horses (including llamas) and 300,000 pigs. According to Smber, cattle spend their life outdoors. There are wintering areas and summer grazing areas. Up to 36 ° latitude, the migration of animals that…

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Chile Education

Chile Education

Training During the colonial period, Chilean teaching was handled by the church. The first general education was organized in the mid-19th century, built and organized by the Venezuelan writer and philologist Andrés Bello, rector of the University of Santiago. However, it was not until 1920 that basic education for the ages of 7–15 years became compulsory. Illiteracy is very low in Latin American conditions, below 6%. Writing and reading skills increased from 50% to 80% during 1920–50. A2zdirectory: Describes prehistory…

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