The executive was given the power to dissolve Parliament, while the task of overseeing internal promotions to the armed forces, previously attributed to the Senate, was attributed to the president. Furthermore, the new Constitution restored to the military the right to vote and abolished the draft, replaced by a professional army and a civil service, the ownership of the oil industry passed to the State and finally Spanish, the official language, was joined by the recognition of indigenous languages. According to itypejob, always with a view to a process of transformation of the political life of Venezuela, in 2000 President Chávez announced new presidential elections, which won with an overwhelming statement on the opposition. Therefore, having received the full consent of the Venezuelan people, at the end of the year, Chávez also obtained from the Parliament broad powers in various sectors such as energy and finance. The serious economic crisis of the country, and the rampant poverty, however, ended up shaking the strength of Chávez’s power: in April 2002 a crowd of demonstrators called for his resignation, causing serious incidents in the center of Caracas. The president was imprisoned by a group of soldiers and rampant poverty, however, ended up shaking the strength of Chávez’s power: in April 2002 a crowd of demonstrators called for his resignation, causing serious incidents in the center of Caracas. The president was imprisoned by a group of soldiers and rampant poverty, however, ended up shaking the strength of Chávez’s power: in April 2002 a crowd of demonstrators called for his resignation, causing serious incidents in the center of Caracas. The president was imprisoned by a group of soldiers coup leaders and the leader of the industrialists, P. Carmona, assumed the leadership of a provisional government.
Only two days later, however, Chávez was released and the army commander E. Vásquez ordered Carmona to resign. The president, therefore, resumed his post and, acclaimed by his supporters, launched an appeal for the unity of the nation. The opposition, although the Constitution provided for the possibility of dismissing the president only after half of his mandate had elapsed, continued to take every path in order to obtain his early resignation, thus attempting to prevent the start of the planned reform plan. by Chávez. In a political and social climate of great tension, demonstrations of the opposition alternated with those of the supporters of the government and an all-out strike of the oil industry. Subsequently, the government and the opposition reached an agreement, signed in June, to proceed with the calling of the referendum, for which, by the end of the year, the opposition had collected 3.4 million signatures. In February 2004, the National Electoral Council recognized just over half of the signatures collected by the opposition as valid, an insufficient number to hold the referendum, but subsequently the opposition managed to collect a sufficient number of signatures for the referendum, which, held in August, saw Chavez win. Political elections were held in December 2005, which registered a turnout of 25% due to the withdrawal from the electoral competition of the opposition parties; thanks to this decision, Chavez’s party won two thirds of the seats in Parliament, necessary to make changes to the Constitution. Starting from the first months of 2006, 32 fields have been nationalized and new taxes have been introduced for oil companies operating in the Orinoco area. Triumphantly re-elected with over 62% of the vote, the president continued on the path he had undertaken by launching a “socialist project of radical transformation”.
In 2007 a referendum rejected the reform of the Constitution wanted by President Chávez, which would have canceled the limit on the number of presidential terms and would have allowed restrictions on freedom of information in case of emergency. In foreign policy, relations with Colombia became tense due to the bombing of the FARC bases in Ecuadorian territory, while tensions with the US for the nationalization of the energy sector remained high. In the meantime, the country was entering an economic crisis aggravated by the fall in the price of crude oil, while the president managed to pass the constitutional reform, with which he could reapply unlimited times, thanks to a new referendum (February 2009). In September 2010, the socialist party of President Chávez won the elections, but the cartel, formed by the opposition parties managed to obtain a good result. In October 2012, the president obtained his fourth term, winning the elections, with over 54% of the vote, defeating the conservative Henrique Capriles. In March 2013 Chavez, after retiring from politics a few months earlier, died, leaving the leadership of the country to vice president Nicolás Maduro Moros, who won the elections in April, defeating the opposition candidate Henrique Capriles. In 2014, large street demonstrations against President Maduro’s policy began in the country.