Turkmenistan Population and Economy

Turkmenistan Population and Economy

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

According to 800zipcodes, the population density is 12 residents / km², with even lower concentrations in the central and desert part of the territory. The country is in strong numerical expansion: the growth coefficient was 2.6% per year in the five-year period 1987-92 and has remained high even after independence. The population, of Turkmen language and Muslim religion, is constituted for 79.2% by Turkmen (or Turkmen), then by Russians (3%) and Uzbeks (9%); there are also small communities of Kazakhs, Armenians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Azeris and Belarusians. Around the mid-nineties of the twentieth century, ethnic Turkmen groups first residing in Tajikistan arrived in Turkmenistan and Afghanistan, following the conflicts that broke out in the two countries. Less than half of the Turkmen live in the city; the rest of the residents are based in rural areas, where tribal organization is still widespread. The main cities, in addition to the capital, are Čärjew (Čardžev), Dašhovuz, Mary and Nebitdag, only the first of which exceeds 200,000 residents.

ECONOMY

The economy of Turkmenistan, which is one of the poorest among those of the Central Asian republics of the former USSR, despite a series of reforms (1993, 1995, 1998) promoted by the government, is however still in precarious conditions, poorly oriented to the differentiation of productions, weakened by the shortsighted conduct of the authorities and by a society still strongly rooted in its tribal structure. The primary sector, which employs almost half of the workforce, and industry have undergone a gradual privatization but there has been no modernization of production. The tax system is inefficient and measures aimed at consolidating public accounts are urgently needed. The GDP recorded in 2008 was US $ 26,909 million, while the GDP / resident ratio. is 3. 863 US $ (however the statistics provided by the authorities are considered unreliable). Agriculture can only be practiced on just over 2% of the state’s surface, only in oases or along rivers (Amudar’ja, Tedžen, Murgab); to encourage irrigation, some canals have been created, including the Garagumskij kanal (Karakumy Canal), completed in 1967, one of the largest in the world. The main products are cereals, in particular wheat, but also potatoes, vegetables and fruit; other resources are breeding (sheep, cattle and goats) and fishing. Cotton, which was already intensively cultivated in the past, has maintained a prominent place in the Turkmen economic framework and fuels exports; the country is among the world’s largest producers of cotton fibers. § The country possesses rich deposits of agriculture can only be practiced on just over 2% of the state’s surface, only in oases or along rivers (Amudar’ja, Tedžen, Murgab); to encourage irrigation, some canals have been created, including the Garagumskij kanal (Karakumy Canal), completed in 1967, one of the largest in the world. The main products are cereals, in particular wheat, but also potatoes, vegetables and fruit; other resources are breeding (sheep, cattle and goats) and fishing. Cotton, which was already intensively cultivated in the past, has maintained a prominent place in the Turkmen economic framework and fuels exports; the country is among the world’s largest producers of cotton fibers. § The country possesses rich deposits of agriculture can only be practiced on just over 2% of the state’s surface, only in oases or along rivers (Amudar’ja, Tedžen, Murgab); to encourage irrigation, some canals have been created, including the Garagumskij kanal (Karakumy Canal), completed in 1967, one of the largest in the world. The main products are cereals, in particular wheat, but also potatoes, vegetables and fruit; other resources are breeding (sheep, cattle and goats) and fishing. Cotton, which was already intensively cultivated in the past, has maintained a prominent place in the Turkmen economic framework and fuels exports; the country is among the world’s largest producers of cotton fibers. § The country possesses rich deposits of only in oases or along rivers (Amudar’ja, Tedžen, Murgab); to encourage irrigation, some canals have been created, including the Garagumskij kanal (Karakumy Canal), completed in 1967, one of the largest in the world. The main products are cereals, in particular wheat, but also potatoes, vegetables and fruit; other resources are breeding (sheep, cattle and goats) and fishing. Cotton, which was already intensively cultivated in the past, has maintained a prominent place in the Turkmen economic framework and fuels exports; the country is among the world’s largest producers of cotton fibers. § The country possesses rich deposits of only in oases or along rivers (Amudar’ja, Tedžen, Murgab); to encourage irrigation, some canals have been created, including the Garagumskij kanal (Karakumy Canal), completed in 1967, one of the largest in the world. The main products are cereals, in particular wheat, but also potatoes, vegetables and fruit; other resources are breeding (sheep, cattle and goats) and fishing. Cotton, which was already intensively cultivated in the past, has maintained a prominent place in the Turkmen economic framework and fuels exports; the country is among the world’s largest producers of cotton fibers. § The country possesses rich deposits of one of the largest in the world. The main products are cereals, in particular wheat, but also potatoes, vegetables and fruit; other resources are breeding (sheep, cattle and goats) and fishing. Cotton, which was already intensively cultivated in the past, has maintained a prominent place in the Turkmen economic framework and fuels exports; the country is among the world’s largest producers of cotton fibers. § The country possesses rich deposits of one of the largest in the world. The main products are cereals, in particular wheat, but also potatoes, vegetables and fruit; other resources are breeding (sheep, cattle and goats) and fishing. Cotton, which was already intensively cultivated in the past, has maintained a prominent place in the Turkmen economic framework and fuels exports; the country is among the world’s largest producers of cotton fibers. § The country possesses rich deposits of oil on the shores of the Caspian Sea and natural gas, of which it is the fourth Asian producer, one of the largest in the world. Starting from the mid-1990s, the authorities decided to expand the hydrocarbon market, especially towards Central Asian countries (Turkey, Iran and Pakistan), subsequently expanding the range of action. In 2000, the construction of the direct gas pipeline to Iran, put into operation in 1997, was completed; in 2005 the gas pipeline connecting Turkmenistan with Azerbaijan was completed, part of the large complex which reaches the Mediterranean through Georgia and Turkey. On the eastern front, the country does not rule out the possibility of opening the hydrocarbon market to Southeast Asia. In addition to hydrocarbons, Turkmenistan has other mineral resources: sulfur in Gaurdak and Serny; salts (bromine, sodium, iodine) in the Kara-Bogaz-Gol; rock salt in the Karakum desert. § The industrial sector, developed in the chemical, petrochemical, food, textile (the government has expressed an interest in enhancing the production of the cotton industry) and mechanical sectors, is of modest size and has undoubtedly suffered from the repatriation of Russian technicians following the detachment from the USSR. Of importance is the production of carpets, of fine workmanship. The trade balance, which was largely passive after independence, sees exports, particularly of natural gas and oil, followed by petrochemicals, cotton fibers and textiles, outstripping imports of machinery, food and chemicals. Turkmenistan’s main trading partners are Ukraine (which covers almost half of the exports), Iran and Azerbaijan for the export and the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Russia, Ukraine, Germany, Iran, China and the United States for imports. § Turkmenistan has a road system and a railway system that cross the country’s major cities; in 1996 a line connecting the country to Iran was activated; Türkmenbaši is the port on the Caspian Sea; the main airport is Ašgabat.

Turkmenistan Economy

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