The compulsory primary school in Tanzania starts at 7 years and comprises seven grades. Today, in principle, all children attend primary school, which is a big difference from the beginning of the 2000s when only about half of the children went to school. The situation is slightly worse on Zanzibar, but the improvements are also evident there.
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Approximately 25% (2008) of the children are admitted to secondary school after a national degree, which has two stages of 4 + 2 year courses. A special degree gives access to the higher stage, which prepares for universities and colleges (college). The country has about 20 universities and a large number of colleges.
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Adult education is more developed in Tanzania than in most other African countries. It aims at functional reading and writing skills and skills that will promote health, survival and professional activities.
The goals one has for the education system are to eradicate the remaining illiteracy in the near future and to raise the quality of the primary school, which has a shortage of classrooms, teachers and materials. The reading and writing skills of the population over 15 years were estimated in 73% in 2009 (79% for men and 67% for women). In 2008, 28% of government spending went to the education sector.
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Throughout 2011, Tanzania sharply criticized NATO’s invasion of Libya and the UN’s unwillingness to stop the war. Through the African Union (AU), Tanzania, together with the other African countries, sought to mediate the conflict and create a negotiated solution. Attempts that were all rejected by NATO.
At least 2 protesters were killed during an otherwise peaceful demonstration in Dar in February 2012. A few weeks before, 16 human rights activists had been arrested by police. There are generally many police offenses in the country and the police have widespread impunity.
In April 2012, Kikwete set up a constitutional commission. It submitted a first draft of a new constitution in December 2013, after which a constitutional assembly consisting of the country’s parliamentarians and 200 individuals nominated by the president and Zanzibar president was set up. In April 2014, the parliamentarians of the three major opposition parties protested that their proposals for amendments were ignored. The most significant changes to the current constitution were: the establishment of an independent electoral commission, the possibility of legally examining presidential elections, limiting the number of ministers a president can appoint, demands for equal gender distribution in parliament and equal rights for men and women to own land. The constitution was expected to be sent for a referendum in April 2015.
In May 2013, African top leaders celebrated the 50th anniversary of the creation of the OAU – the African Union (AU) predecessor. But beside the tributes, President Kikwete was extremely honest. As chairman of the AU Security Council, he stated that if Congo could negotiate with the rebel group M23, then Uganda should also be able to negotiate with ADF-Nalu and Rwanda should be able to negotiate with the FDLR rebels. It was a clear upheaval to try to solve some of Africa’s security problems along the way, and not just military ones. While Uganda followed the call for negotiation, Rwanda’s president declared that he felt only contempt for Kikwete’s statements. The relationship between the two neighboring countries was further cooled in May 2014 when Tanzania’s foreign minister in parliament stated that Rwanda was causing instability in the Congo. The statement triggered a broad idea from Rwanda’s foreign minister. Tanzania also has a conflict with neighboring Malawi over the border crossing in Lake Nyasa. In 2013, the two countries agreed to involve the International Court of Justice in The Hague if they could not conclude a settlement. Negotiations in March 2014 on border demarcation failed.
China’s investment in Africa has grown rapidly these years. Chinese annual investment in Tanzania grew from 700 million. US $ 2011 to $ 2.1 billion US $ in 2013. The Chinese especially invested in infrastructure projects such as railways, ports, buildings, road construction, gas pipelines and wind turbines. The Chinese entered the building of a new large port in Bagamayo northwest of Dar. When completed in 2017, it would become Africa’s largest and most modern port. Already in 2012, China was Tanzania’s largest trading partner with an annual trade of 2.5 billion. US $. China was particularly interested in the country’s large mineral reserves. In October 2012, Ngwena Company discovered new nickel reserves totaling 290,000 tonnes. The evasion was expected to start in 2015.
In November 2014, Prime Minister Pinda was implicated in a corruption scandal involving 120 billion. US $ had been paid to an energy company and a number of top officials. The scandal resulted in $ 460 billion US $ in aid from a number of donor countries was suspended.