Only 7% of children attend preschool (2007). The education system provides the opportunity for eleven years of schooling. Most of the students are taught in Tajik, but there are also classes where teaching is in the minority languages Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen and Uzbek. Russian-speaking children must also learn Tajik, official language since 1989, from the first year. Great emphasis is placed on Tajik culture and classical Persian literature. Teaching in Russian again became compulsory in 2003. In practice, the quality of education has been depleted since independence, first because of the civil war, later because of insufficient resources, lack of textbooks, teacher shortages and outdated institutions. In some regions, children are absent from school due to the security situation and parental poverty. Many children work instead of going to school. The level of education is said to have declined, especially for girls. The entire education system is also struggling with widespread corruption. Officially, only 0.4% of the adult population is illiterate.
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|Land area||143,100 km²|
|Residents per km²||62|
|Official language||Tajik (closely related to Farsi)|
|Income per capita||$ 3,200|
|ISO 3166 code||TJ|
|Time zone UTC||+6|
|Geographic coordinates||39 00 N, 71 00 O|
Tajikistan has several higher education institutions, including two universities in Dushanbe were founded in 1948 and 1996 respectively and one was founded in Chudzhand in 1991. Further higher educational institutions have been established, often with foreign aid. In 1998, an Aga Khan Lyc谷e was established in Chorogh, the capital of the autonomous Gorno-Badachshan, dominated by a minority-speaking population. Since 2006 there is also a campus for the University of Central Asia. Furthermore, there are a number of teacher colleges and technical schools. The Tajik Academy of Sciences has several research institutes.
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Dusjanbe, capital of Tajikistan; 764,300 residents (2013). Located on the Varzob River, Dusjanbe is the country’s dominant industrial center and transport hub. In addition, many of Tajikistan’s cultural institutions have concentrated here, such as universities (founded in 1948), several colleges and the Tajik Academy of Sciences (1951). The city has a modern feel. Low houses and wide streets dominate the settlement.
Dushanbe was created after the Russian Revolution and became the capital of the Tajik Assar in 1924, after 1929 in the Tajik SSR. The city was called Stalinabad 1929-61.