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The Kashmir Conflict Part 4

The Kashmir Conflict Part 4

Sharp UN criticism In June 2018, the UN Human Rights Council published its first report on violence in Kashmir. The report spans the period January 2016 to April 2018 and directs particularly sharp criticism at India, including for “chronic impunityfor violence perpetrated by the security forces ”. The Council criticizes the Indian Law (Armed Forces Special Powers Act) of 1990 which states that soldiers in Kashmir cannot be prosecuted without the consent of the central government. According to the report, Indian forces committed 145…

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The Kashmir Conflict Part 3

The Kashmir Conflict Part 3

Armistice and terrorist attacks After all, peace activists have occurred. In November 2000, India declared a unilateral ceasefire during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan. The ceasefire was then extended three times. It was considered the most serious peace invitation from India in eleven years. According to consistent information, the shooting around the control line largely stopped during this period. But the guerrillas did not interrupt their attacks. Most militant groups dismissed the ceasefire as “Indian propaganda.” It was not long before as many people had…

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The Kashmir Conflict Part 2

The Kashmir Conflict Part 2

Muslim guerrillas In the late 1980s, the conflict took a new turn when Muslim guerrillas entered the struggle for the part of Kashmir that India controls. During the 1980s, dissatisfaction with the Indian government had increased, especially with the advance of the Indian security service in the area. At the same time, a wave of revival swept through the Muslim world. Kashmiri youths went to Pakistan for military training and weapons, guerrilla groups were formed and a series of assassination attempts were carried…

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The Kashmir Conflict Part 1

The Kashmir Conflict Part 1

For 70 years, India and Pakistan have been fighting over Kashmir in the Himalayas and Karakorum mountain ranges. In 1949, the conflict led to the division of the border into an Indian and a Pakistani part. But no peace agreement was reached. Since then, peace efforts have been replaced by escalating violence. The world is concerned about the Kashmir conflict because both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons. The conflict arose when British India in 1947 was divided into two independent states: the secular (non-religious) India,…

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Pakistan Education

Pakistan Education

Since Pakistan’s independence, many promises have been made to develop and improve the education system, and five-year plans have been formulated since 1960. Few measures have been implemented for the large part of the population. More recently, Islamization has become increasingly important. Next to the public school system there are Islamic schools (the “madrassah” system). It is in principle free but not compulsory primary school. The primary school is 5 years old from the children is 5 years old. The…

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