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The Kashmir Conflict Part 4

The Kashmir Conflict Part 4

Sharp UN criticism In June 2018, the UN Human Rights Council published its first report on violence in Kashmir. The report spans the period January 2016 to April 2018 and directs particularly sharp criticism at India, including for “chronic impunityfor violence perpetrated by the security forces ”. The Council criticizes the Indian Law (Armed Forces Special Powers Act) of 1990 which states that soldiers in Kashmir cannot be prosecuted without the consent of the central government. According to the report, Indian forces committed 145…

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The Kashmir Conflict Part 3

The Kashmir Conflict Part 3

Armistice and terrorist attacks After all, peace activists have occurred. In November 2000, India declared a unilateral ceasefire during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan. The ceasefire was then extended three times. It was considered the most serious peace invitation from India in eleven years. According to consistent information, the shooting around the control line largely stopped during this period. But the guerrillas did not interrupt their attacks. Most militant groups dismissed the ceasefire as “Indian propaganda.” It was not long before as many people had…

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The Kashmir Conflict Part 2

The Kashmir Conflict Part 2

Muslim guerrillas In the late 1980s, the conflict took a new turn when Muslim guerrillas entered the struggle for the part of Kashmir that India controls. During the 1980s, dissatisfaction with the Indian government had increased, especially with the advance of the Indian security service in the area. At the same time, a wave of revival swept through the Muslim world. Kashmiri youths went to Pakistan for military training and weapons, guerrilla groups were formed and a series of assassination attempts were carried…

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The Kashmir Conflict Part 1

The Kashmir Conflict Part 1

For 70 years, India and Pakistan have been fighting over Kashmir in the Himalayas and Karakorum mountain ranges. In 1949, the conflict led to the division of the border into an Indian and a Pakistani part. But no peace agreement was reached. Since then, peace efforts have been replaced by escalating violence. The world is concerned about the Kashmir conflict because both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons. The conflict arose when British India in 1947 was divided into two independent states: the secular (non-religious) India,…

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Higher Education System in India

Higher Education System in India

Study in India: higher education system The number of higher education institutions in India has increased massively since independence. Although almost 40 percent of the Indian population is under 20 years of age, just twelve percent of a given year group are studying. For comparison: in Germany it is currently around 46 percent. Due to the immense population, there are still eleven million students who enroll in more than 560 Indian higher education institutions. Especially since the 1990s, the need…

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India Education

India Education

Training The school system was neglected during the British colonial rule, but after independence the general school system has been expanded. Similarly, universities and higher education have expanded significantly. Education is a common concern for the Länder and the central government and in 2004 occupied about 4% of the gross domestic product. The school system has four levels: primary school (5 years), higher primary school (3 years), secondary school (2 years) and higher secondary school (2 years). Most states have…

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