In 1991, extensive reforms were decided on by both the school and university system. Previously, the school structure of the school was 6 + 3 + 3 academic years with 7 years as the age of entry. This was changed to 8 years of primary school with 6 years of age. The secondary school was three years old.
In 2006, just over half of the children were estimated to attend school, but in recent years major investments have been made in education and in 2009 UNESCO estimated that 85% of the children in the current school year started primary school. However, the differences in schooling are very large between city and countryside and between boys and girls. Directed investments have been made for a few years now on girls and nomadic groups. Although the schooling is officially free of charge, there are often costs for school supplies, uniforms and in some cases teacher salaries. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Sudan.
The lack of educated teachers has long been a major problem; those who have received training for various professions have largely been employed in the oil-rich Arab countries. Literacy in 2009 was estimated at 70% (80% for men and 61% for women).
There are several universities in Sudan, of which the University of Khartoum is the most significant.
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As the north-south peace process progressed, in January 2004, government forces launched an offensive in Darfur province in the west against the Sudanese Liberation Movement Army – the former Darfur Liberation Movement.
Sudan’s Liberation Movement had been formed the year before, in response to the systematic attacks in the Darfur region by Arab nomads – the so-called Janjawid militias. The nomads were pushed to the west as a result of desertification in the Sahel area of Sudan, and they encountered Darfur along with the resident population.
According to Human Rights Watch reports, the Janjawid militias were already supported by the Central Government with weapons, training and other equipment before 2003. It carried out the politics of the burnt earth and carried out ethnic cleansing where it penetrated. In 2004, the assaults had killed 10,000 people, destroyed 2,300 villages and settlements and driven $ 1 million. on the run. They sought protection around the cities of Sudan, or crossed the border to Chad in an attempt to escape torture, rape and theft carried out in complete lawlessness. The World Organization Against Torture criticized the use of torture against children in Darfur the same year.
In March 2004, al-Bashir again ordered Turabi and his political and military supporters arrested. In April, the UN Commission on Human Rights refused to adopt sanctions against the Government of Sudan. Still, the World Food Program (WFP) found that 3 million Sudanese now suffered from hunger and characterized the situation as a “humanitarian disaster”.
In May, Chad’s army was attacked across the border by regular Sudanese forces. Some political observers stated that it was possible that an alliance was formed against the government among rebel groups in Nuba, Abyei, the Blue Nile and Darfur, and that the clashes could spread to larger parts of Sudan.
In June, US Secretary of State Colin Powell visited Sudan and tried to put pressure on the government to stop it from attacking the civilian population in Darfur. At the same time, the United States pointed out that the UN Security Council could adopt sanctions if the violence continued. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan declared that if the Government of Sudan could not protect the people of Darfur, then the international community would have to respond. The UN characterized the situation as the world’s most serious humanitarian disaster.
The UN points to the murders and the massive displacement of civilians into a “conscious campaign for ethnic cleansing”. The Sudanese government continued its refusal to support the Arab militias attacking the villages. At the same time, the humanitarian organizations criticized the government for obstructing the distribution of food and medicine. Sudanese Foreign Minister Mustafá Ismail admitted there was a “problem” in Darfur, but he considered it exaggerated, and he promised his government would take a number of steps to resolve the problem, even before the end of Powell’s visit.