Apart from a progressive period before the Franco regime, the education system in Spain until the 1970s was characterized by strong conservatism and centralization without any major consideration for ethnic differences. However, the need for modernization of the economy at large forced 1970 reform (LGE), which broadened educational opportunities. After 8-year primary school, either a 3-year secondary school (BUP) followed, leading to a bachelor’s degree, the equivalent of a Swedish student degree, or a vocational school with 2-year stages. The former had a one-year extension (COU), which gave eligibility for admission to university. The primary school’s first five grades were general and focused on literacy, while the last three were more subject-oriented. The universities were, and are, mainly of two kinds, both those who announce 3-year undergraduate education and partly those who also have research-linked advanced education for master’s and doctoral degrees with an additional 2 + 2 years. According to Abbreviationfinder, Spain is a country located in Europe.
The conditions for the education system have changed significantly since 1970, politically and economically. In 1978, the country was given a new constitution, which emphasizes everyone’s right to education. The rapid urbanization and entry into the EC have had strong repercussions. The González government tried to speed up modernization and sought to qualitatively capture the rest of Europe. The 1983 university reform gave the regions and the individual universities greater powers and formed part of the already decentralized process. The 1985 General Education Act (LODE) gave everyone the right to choose education freely within the framework of an integrated network of state and private schools; it also introduced increased local influence over the governance of schools. The 1990 General Education Act (LOGSE) regulated structure and curricula and introduced 10-year compulsory schooling.
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The school structure according to LOGSE consists of 3-year preschool, 6-year primary school, 4-year compulsory secondary school and a post-compulsory 2-year school which prepares for university. The primary school consists of three 2-year stages with teaching mainly by class teachers, but not in foreign languages, which are already introduced in year 3. In the compulsory secondary school, the subject choice covers the first year 10% of the time and the fourth year 35%. Upon departure, you will receive either a certificate, Graduado Escolar, which entitles you to enter the post-compulsory school, or a Certificate de Escolaridad for vocational education. Everyone who has completed 10-year compulsory school receives a certificate called Graduado en Educación Secundaria. After the two years in post-compulsory school, four kinds of bachillerato can be taken: natural sciences, humanities, social sciences and technical.
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Madrid – history
According to an Arab historian from the 1200’s. Madrid was founded in the 800-t., but not until the 900-t. the city is mentioned under its Arabic name, Majrít.
Madrid was conquered in 931 by the Christian king of León, but remained in the Middle Ages through a small town, populated by Christians, Jews and Moors. It was protected by a castle, La Almudena, where the royal palace was later built.
Christians and Moors had alternate dominions, but under Alfonso VIII the city gained its own jurisdiction (Fuero Real), and in 1477 the “Catholic royal couple”, Ferdinand and Isabella, could enter Madrid, where the later regent Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros also became appointed Archbishop of Toledo.
In 1513, Madrid had approx. 15,000 inhabitants and was of such importance that the peace treaty in 1526 between Charles 5. and Frans 1. of France took place here. The real capital was Madrid first under Philip II. in 1561. The city then grew strongly but unplanned, and most of the forests that had surrounded Madrid were felled and used for construction and fuel.
At the same time, Madrid became the center of Spain’s literary and artistic golden age. The authors Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, Francisco de Quevedo and Calderón as well as the painters Velázquez and Claudio Coello were born in Madrid and lived there.
The architecture of the time was inspired by Philip II’s mighty monastery, El Escorial (1563-84). In 1601, Philip II moved his court to Valladolid, but returned to Madrid in 1606. Under Philip IV, the current Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Palacio de Santa Cruz, the town hall and the church of San Isidro el Real were built. In the late 1600’s, flourished especially theatrical life, which both the court and the citizens showed an unprecedented interest.
Under Philip 5, who ruled in the first half of the 1700’s, as the first Spanish king of the genus Bourbon, the royal palace, the national library and the royal academies were built for resp. language, history and art. Under his successor, Charles III, nicknamed “the best mayor of Madrid”, the city grew to 160,000 inhabitants, and parks, a botanical garden, an astronomical observatory, Cibeles Square with a fountain, and the Church of San Francisco el Grande were built during the same period..
In 1808, Madrid was occupied by Napoleon I’s troops, and the uprising of the citizens was bloodily defeated on 2/5. After the expulsion of the French, Fernando VII was able to return to Madrid as king in 1814. Throughout the 1800’s. Madrid, like the rest of Spain, was marked by violent social unrest and military uprisings.
In 1878, when Madrid had approx. 500,000 inhabitants, electricity and electric trams were introduced, and in 1919 the city’s metro was inaugurated.
During the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39, Madrid was the Republican capital. It was bombed several times from the air and was subjected to a prolonged siege by the nationalists until it had to surrender on 28.3.1939.