In 1821, the Sennar Sultanate in the north collapsed following an Egyptian invasion. After consolidating their control over northern Sudan, Egyptian forces moved south. In 1827 Ali Khurshid Pasha led an Egyptian force through the territory of the Dinka people, and in 1830 he led an expedition to the junction of the White Nile and Sobat. In 1839 and 42, Admiral Salim Qabudan led expeditions down the White Nile as far as present-day Juba. The Egyptians tried to establish garrisons in the area, but disease and desertion prompted these colonization attempts to be abandoned quickly. Egypt claimed to have control over the areas of South Sudan, but had no real authority over the areas. Following pressure from the European colonial powers, Egypt in 1851 gave European traders and missionaries access to the territories. The Europeans found large quantities of ivory, but at the same time discovered that the Bari people were quite uninterested in trade at all. The traders therefore often conquered the ivory by force, but it soon proved not to be economical, and the European trade adventure therefore had little success. Christian missionaries established a number of posts in the area under the leadership of the Catholic Apostolic office in Central Africa. However, missionaries had little influence in the region in the 19th century. Christian missionaries established a number of posts in the area under the leadership of the Catholic Apostolic office in Central Africa. However, missionaries had little influence in the region in the 19th century. Christian missionaries established a number of posts in the area under the leadership of the Catholic Apostolic office in Central Africa. However, missionaries had little influence in the region in the 19th century. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of South Sudan.
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|Land area||644,329 km²|
|Residents per km²||16.4|
|Official language||Arabic, English|
|Income per capita||1,600 USD|
|Currency||South Sudanese pound|
|ISO 3166 code||SS|
|Time zone UTC||+3|
|Geographic coordinates||4 ° 51 ′ 0 ″ N, 31 ° 36 ′ 0 ″ E|
The lack of formal governmental authority was compensated by the development of strong commercial leaders in the mid-19th century. To the east, Muhammad Ahmad al-Aqqad controlled vast lands, but the strongest was Al-Zubayr Rahma Mansur, who gained control of Bahr el Ghazal and other parts of southern Sudan. Al-Zubayr was a merchant from Khartoum who hired a private army and marched to the south. He established a network of trade fortresses – known as Zaribas – in the area, and from there he controlled local trade. The most valuable commodity remained ivory. Throughout the centuries, Sudanese traders had not given ivory any greater value, but in the United States and Europe wealthy people began to demand pianos (with ivory tangents) and billiard balls. To handle the trade, al-Zubayr needed manpower, and he therefore began to capture Africans who were made slaves. To supplement his rental army, he also built a larger slave army. His trade empire quickly came into conflict with the Sultanate of Darfur, which he therefore attacked. In 1874 the Sultanate was finally beaten and the last Sultan, Ibrahim killed.
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In Egypt, the Viceroy (Khedive), Isma’il Pasha, was alarmed by the growing power of al-Zubayr. Pasha therefore created the province of Equatoria, which he planned to colonize. He hired in 1869 British explorer Samuel Baker to govern the province and provided him with soldiers and money, but Baker was unable to extend Pasha’s power in the area. Instead, he hired the mercenary Muhammad al-Bulalwi and promised him that he would get the governor post over Bahr el Ghazal if he could only crush al-Zubayr. But instead it was al-Zubayr who crushed the invasion force and killed al-Bulalwi. In 1873, the Pasha instead chose to appoint al-Zubayr as governor.
However, Pasha continued to feel threatened by al-Zubayr and his considerable power base. Likewise, the British media was full of stories about the “slave king” al-Zubayr. In 1874, therefore, Charles George Gordon was appointed by the British as Governor of Equatoria. In 1877, al-Zubayr traveled to Cairo to request also to be appointed governor of Darfur, but instead he was placed under house arrest by Pasha. At the same time, Gordon defeated al-Zubayr’s son, thus ending the ruler control over the area. Despite the victory, Gordon was unable to extend his authority in the region – except for the areas that were close to his garrisons. In 1878, Gordon was replaced by Emin Pasha (Eduard Schnitzer), but his rule was short-lived. The Mahdi rebellion in North Sudan (1881-85) probably did not spread as far south as the non-Muslim region, but cut off South Sudan from Egypt. Emin Pasha sat in isolation and without resources, and eventually had to be rescued by a force led by Henry Stanley.
Equatoria ceased to exist as an Egyptian province in 1889. The most important cities of the region were then Lado, Gondokoro, Dufile and Wadelai. In 1947, the British colonial government planned to unite South Sudan with Uganda, but the conference in Juba stretched legs for those plans. It decided to unite North and South Sudan.
Juba, the capital of South Sudan; 372,400 residents (2011). Juba is located on the White Nile and originated in the early 1900’s. The city is the largest in South Sudan and was the seat of the region’s self-government 1972-83. It lies on a lush plain, but due to civil war there has been famine in the city repeatedly since the mid 1980’s.
Following the conclusion of the peace agreement between South and North Sudan in 2005, the city is again the capital of the partially autonomous South Sudan and from 9.7.2011 the capital of the independent newly formed state of South Sudan.