In Somalia the education follows a 6-2-4 system, where the primary school lasts for 6 years, the secondary school for 2 years and the secondary school for 4 years. According to UNESCO, approx. 62% of the adult population became illiterate in 2001 (50% of men, 75% of women).
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|Land area||637,657 km²|
|Residents per km²||18.4|
|Income per capita||400 USD|
|Currency||Somalia Shilling (Shilling)|
|ISO 3166 code||SO|
|Time zone UTC||+3|
|Geographic coordinates||10 00 N, 49 00 O|
In 1972, all education in Somalia was nationalized and Somali was introduced as a language of instruction. Officially there is compulsory schooling for 8 years (6-14 years), but in 2002 only approx. 16% of children in primary school. The high school is 4 years old. The entire school system collapsed in 1991.
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More than 100 died in June 2004 in connection with fighting between ethnic militias in the town of Bula Hawo in southern Somalia. Two factions of Somalia’s National Front (SNT) clashed over control of the city. Bula Hawo is a hub of trade between Mogadishu, Kenya and Ethiopia. The fighting took place near the border and also affected the city of Mandera in Kenya, where 7 lost their lives. The Kenyan government decided to detain suspects in the area and sent police there to prevent militia infiltration. Still, hundreds of Somalis searched across the border to seek protection in neighboring countries.
That same month, Britain decided to extradite 6 Somalis who had sought asylum because of the war. Amnesty International criticized the move, asked for an explanation and declared that it was an undrafted change in UK foreign policy. The organization stated that the government’s claim that the refugees did not run the risk of returning to Somalia was not realistic. Somalia is the country that delivers the most asylum applications to the UK. Only 4,500 during 2003.
In July 2004, about 150 Somalis met in Mogadishu to discuss the country’s rebuilding after 10 years of civil war and complete lack of legal community. The interviews included academics, business people from different parts of the country as well as Somalis from abroad. But without public administration, without police forces and without transport, there were poor conditions for the unfolding of these negotiations. At the same time, negotiations in Kenya continued, leading to the formation of a government by the end of July.
It was not only Amnesty who considered the situation very difficult as a result of new fighting between the warring warlords. The same was true of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Over 1½ million Somalis have been displaced or exiled since the beginning of the civil war.
On December 26, 2004, Somalia was the country on the African continent most affected by the tsunami that particularly affected Southeast Asia. The worst affected area was Puntlania, where at least 200 died and 30,000 became homeless. Many wells were destroyed.
At least 10 were killed and many others injured when a bomb exploded in Mogadishu when Ghedi held a conference in May 2005. a month later, the government began returning from its exile in Kenya, although it has not yet been decided where it should seat.
A new attack against Ghedi took place in November when his caravan was attacked with weapons in Mogadishu. The prime minister escaped, but 6 were killed.
More than a year after it was formed in Kenya, Parliament finally met on Somali territory – namely in February in the city of Baidoa. 205 of the 275 MPs participated, but many warlords allied with Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan who were dissatisfied with President Yusuf did not participate. After all, the meeting in Baidoa became possible after the two leaders had met in Yemen the month before.
The militia of the Islamic courts took control of Mogadishu in June 2006. It was the strongest and most popular movement in the country. The total 11 independent Islamic courts in the capital, each fighting for the introduction of Islamic law as a means to deal with pornography and a number of common crimes in the capital’s streets.