Although major educational reforms have been implemented in the country, much is still similar to the French-inspired school that existed in the country before liberation. Attempts have been made to introduce local African languages into teaching, although French is the official language of instruction. Officially, the 6-year compulsory schooling from the children is 7 years. About. 60% of children start primary school. The secondary school is divided into two (4 + 3 years). The country has three universities as well as colleges. According to UNESCO’s calculations, approx. 61% of the adult population illiterate (2002).
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Chad’s ex-president Hissene Habre was detained in November, but the same month a Senegalese court declared himself unable to rule on a possible deportation of the ex-curator to Belgium, where he would be tried in court for war crimes. Habre had had political asylum in Senegal since his reign in 1990 was brought down by rebels. He is accused of being responsible for the execution of 40,000 people and the torture of another 200,000.
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The rebel movement that continued its fight for Casamanca’s independence clashed in March 2006 with forces from Guinea Bissau at the border between the two countries.
In May, the UN Committee Against Torture gave Senegal 90 days to either bring Habré to justice or to prosecute him in Belgium. The request was rejected. In February 2009, Belgium therefore appealed to Senegal before the International Court of Justice in The Hague, demanding extradition of Habré for prosecution.
In February 2007, Wade was re-elected to the presidential post with 56% of the vote. Following the June parliamentary elections, he appointed his former finance minister Cheikh Hadjibou Soumare as new prime minister. The opposition fiercely protested the election, and boycotted the parliamentary elections later this year. In April 2008, the president declared that he no longer saw any opportunity for dialogue with the opposition.
In July 2007, the president declared “war on illegal emigration”. He also stated that the African countries should make their borders more open to people, thereby increasing growth. Also in July, Wade spoke at the African Union Summit in Ghana, advocated the formation of the United States of Africa and continued: “If we fail to join, we will become weak and if we live in isolated states run we are facing a serious risk of economic collapse with the stronger and united economies ”.
In July 2008, the National Assembly changed the constitution so that the presidential term will be seven years ahead – as it was before the constitutional change in 2001. The change does not affect the current presidential term (2007-12), but only the subsequent one. In 2009, Wade declared that he could envisage a third term in 2012 if health allowed.
Following widespread attacks by the MFDC movement against military and civilian targets in early 2010, the military went into attack on the MFDC’s positions. Both the government and the MFDC declared their readiness to negotiate, but by the end of the year this had not yet happened. In February 2011, Senegal cut off diplomatic relations with Iran, as the country believed to have evidence that the IRD had supplied the MFDC with ammunition.
In July-August, thousands demonstrated against the recurrent interruptions in the electricity supply.
The “Arab Spring” reached Senegal on February 18, 2011, when soldier Oumar Bocoum set fire to himself outside the Dakar presidential palace. The protests took place in the following months in protest against Wade’s rule, and in June forced the president to abandon 2 amendments to the constitution. Wade would have lowered the threshold for winning the presidential election in the first round from 50% to 25. That way, he would be able to secure victory in the first round against a split opposition. At the same time, he wanted to introduce a vice-presidential office, which he planned to fill by his son.