The school in Poland is divided into 6-year primary school, 3-year secondary school and 3-year high school. In 1991, major changes were made to the education system as part of the political and economic upheaval in the country. Communist educational content was removed and new foreign languages introduced.
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The government has proposed legislation to introduce compulsory education for all children from the age of 6. The bill, which is being debated in parliament in the autumn of 2013, means that on September 1, 2014, compulsory education will be required for children born in 2007 and children born in the first half of 2008. On September 1, 2015, this shall apply to children born in the second half of 2008 and children born. in 2009. In 1999, 9 years of compulsory primary education were introduced for all children and young people between the ages of 7 and 16. However, the youth is obliged to continue with upper secondary education until they reach the age of 18. In the 2009/10 school year, 60% of young people started at theoretical 3-year high school and 30% at 4-year vocational high school. 10% of the youth started with a shorter vocational education. In 1989, private schools were allowed, with 9.5% of pupils attending (2012).
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Poland has a well-developed education system at university and college level. In total, there are 470 (2012) public and private universities/colleges with almost two million students. Higher education at public universities and colleges is free. The Jagellonian University of Kraków was founded in 1364 and is one of the oldest in Europe. The University of Warsaw was founded in 1816.
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1918 New Polish State
With the ceasefire, the new Polish state was a reality. Marshal Pilsudski returned to Warsaw in triumph and became a main figure in the new Poland. Initially, he had to compromise with the supporters of a social revolution, and accepted that the first government was socially dominated. Workers ‘and Soldiers’ Councils possessed much of the physical power in the first months after the end of the war. But soon the radical forces were forced back. The Western powers needed Poland as a bulwark against the Soviet Union. They played on the traditional patriotic, anti-Russian sentiments, and as early as 1919 the new Poland was a bourgeois and strongly nationally-influenced republic. Poland came to war with the Soviet Union, but the bourgeois state was saved by French aid.
At the conclusion of the peace, Poland was assigned large tracts of land in the East, where the majority were of Ukrainian and Belarusian descent. However, the Baltic States with the 1921 State Peace Agreement gained their independence. To the west, large German-speaking groups were placed under Poland. The conflict with the national minorities and a Jewish population of almost 10% played a major role in the interwar period.
In 1921, the new state was given a liberal parliamentary constitution, but the struggle between the various political groups became fierce, and no stable government was created until Pilsudski in 1926 carried out a coup d’etat. The Prorussian communists were constantly persecuted as an anti-national party, and the radical left continued to be divided and relatively weak until World War II. The Polish Communist Party had long been relatively independent of Moscow, which aroused Stalin’s anger. As the only party, it was dissolved by the Comintern in 1938. The leaders who had fled to the Soviet Union were killed or deported.
After Pilsudski’s death in 1935, the Warsaw regime gained an increasingly fascist feel. Foreign policy showed that Poland used the Munich settlement to deprive Czechoslovakia of the Teschen area. For a while, Warsaw tried to compromise with Hitler-Germany, but after the fall of Czechoslovakia it quickly became clear that Poland was at the top of Hitler’s attack targets. Berlin wanted Gdansk (Danzig) – which in the interwar period was a free state under the control of the League of Nations – as well as a corridor for East Prussia. The government now sought support from the Western powers, but wanted no contact with Moscow, which concluded a non-assault pact with Hitler, a week before the war broke out.
Poland’s prehistory includes the period from the last Middle Ages (around 125,000 years ago) to the younger Iron Age.
The oldest prehistoric finds from the area that today make up Poland date from the beginning of the last Middle Ages. They include not only objects of flint, but also considerable quantities of implements in the horns and bones as well as bones of the animals that humans hunt. Also from the Mesolithic period the bulk of the finds are from settlements, but from Janisławice in central Poland, about midway between Kalisz and Wrocław, a well-preserved burial ground is known. The customer culture is closely related to the Maglemose culture in Denmark.
The first traces of a Neolithic economy emerged from the fifth millennium BCE. Both knowledge of arable and livestock farming and pottery production have southeastern origins. It is primarily the band ceramic cultures that have had a strong influence. In Northern Poland, the hopper culture developed. It is particularly characterized by large megalithic tombs. In the north, there are also finds from comb and pit ceramic cultural groups that have essentially lived by hunting, fishing and sinking, but who had sharpened stone tools and who were able to produce pottery.
Towards the end of the Neolithic period several local variants of snor ceramic groups appeared. Western European influence is represented by the bell cup culture.
The Bronze Age
Copper has been used for jewelry and weapons from the second half of the 4th millennium BCE. The Bronze Age (approximately 1700-650 BCE) can be divided into two main sections. In the older Bronze Age, it is only in Śląsk (Silesia) and in the southeastern parts of the country that a “true Bronze Age culture” – represented by the Aunjetitz culture – can be traced. Other regional cultural groups have existed. Common to all of them is that bronze has only been used insignificantly.
First from around 1200 BCE. a uniform material culture (the Lausitz culture) can be demonstrated throughout the country. People have lived in villages that may have consisted of up to 100 houses. The acquisition has been based on arable and February crops, and specialized craftsmen have been employed. More than 100 such villages have been identified in Poland. The dead were burned and buried in urns. The entire burial ground with such urn burials has been found.
The iron age
In the northern part of the country came a new element in the Iron Age, which stands out among other things by its own tomb and clay vessels, which because of its shape are called facial urns. The centuries before our era were characterized by Celtic culture, with a developed agriculture. The turning mill was known, as was the turntable for the production of, among other things, clay vessels. In Roman times there have been strong social divisions. The upper social stratum is represented by so-called “first graves”. In general, Roman times were very rich, and many Roman imports were found, as well as large deposits of Roman silver coins.
During the Iron Age large quantities of iron ore were mined in mines. Up to 18 meters of deep shafts are registered in the mountains. In addition, iron ore was mined. Remains have been found after thousands of shaft furnaces where the iron making itself has taken place.