Lansing and Lake Michigan

Lansing and Lake Michigan

Race and Ethnicities According to agooddir, Lansing’s racial makeup is as follows: 9% White 0% African American 3% Hispanic 8% Asian 6% Indigenous natives 4% Two or more races The five largest groups in Lansing by descent are: Germans who make up 20.4% of the state’s population, African-American 14.2%, Irish 10.7%, English 9.9%, and Poles 8.6%. Other ethnic minorities are the French, Dutch and Italians. Americans of German descent are present in all the Lansing regions Scandinavians especially Finnish, British…

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The Military Dimension of the First World War Part IV

The Military Dimension of the First World War Part IV

The Entente counteroffensive and the collapse of the Central Powers: On the Allied side, General F. Foch in April 1918 assumed command of all land forces. He started his counter-offensive on July 18th. with a flank thrust from the forest of Villers-Cotterêts, which led to the withdrawal of the German front behind the Vesle. More on 8.8. (“Black Day of the German Army”) east of Amiens, supported by tanks and aircraft, pushed the Germans back into the “Siegfriedstellung”. At the…

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Maryland Economy and Education

Maryland Economy and Education

Economy According to a2zdirectory, the economic, financial and industrial center of the state is Baltimore. Agriculture and livestock together contribute about 0.9% of the state’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product), and employ about 53,600 people. Maryland has about 12,000 farms, which cover about 30% of the state. The main products grown or raised in the state are corn, soybeans, chickens, eggs, and milk. Forestry only accounts for 0.10% of the state’s GDP and employs approximately 1,000 people. Fishing represents only 0.04% of…

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Illinois History

Illinois History

French missionaries Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to explore the region. They had been ordered by the governor of the French colony of New France to explore and map the course of the Mississippi River.. They left Quebec in 1673, arriving in the region of present-day Illinois in 1675. Joliet was the one that gave name to the region of Illinois, in reference to the Illiniwek confederation, with which both missionaries established friendly relations. This same…

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The Military Dimension of the First World War Part III

The Military Dimension of the First World War Part III

Despite the victory over Romania and the repulsion of all attacks, the situation of the Central Powers was serious at the end of 1916. The 1914 British remote blockade in the North Sea and the Canal began to take effect (famine in Germany, “turnip winter” 1916/17). The Danube Monarchy was shaken by the internal opposition of the Slavs and the death of Emperor Franz Joseph I (November 21); Attempts by his successor, Charles I , to achieve a separate peace…

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The Military Dimension of the First World War Part II

The Military Dimension of the First World War Part II

The fighting in the west and east 1915: Tried in the winter battle in Champagne (16.2. – 19.3.), The spring battle in Artois (9.5. – 18.6.) And the autumn battle in Artois and Champagne (22.9. – 14.10.) the French and British, with increasing use of forces and materials, in vain to break through the German defensive front in the west. A German attack to cut off the Ypres arch (April 22nd – May 24th) did not get beyond the initial…

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The Military Dimension of the First World War Part I

The Military Dimension of the First World War Part I

Due to the global expansion of the power system, fighting took place on almost all continents and most of the great seas, as well as in the air. The focus of the fighting on land was Europe with two main fronts (western and eastern front) and two secondary fronts (southeast with changing locations: Serbia, Romania, Thessaloniki front; southern front: Italy, from 1915). In addition, there were three fronts of the Ottoman Empire as an extension of the southeast front: against…

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The Prehistory of the First World War in 1914 Part II

The Prehistory of the First World War in 1914 Part II

The next big crisis, the Bosnian annexation crisis (1908/09), was located in the east: the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which had only been occupied in 1878, by Austria-Hungary provoked a sharp protest from Serbia, which saw itself supported by Russia. With a veiled ultimatum, Germany forced Russia, which was still militarily weakened, to give in, which in turn caused Serbia to withdraw. What remained was the growing national bitterness in Serbia and the inner hopelessness in Bosnia and Herzegovina:…

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The Prehistory of the First World War in 1914 Part I

The Prehistory of the First World War in 1914 Part I

The prehistory of the First World War, the “great catastrophe of the 20th century”, is extraordinarily multifaceted. The immediate triggering factor, but in turn afflicted with a complicated previous development ( Balkan inquiry), was the South Slav national movement in the Balkans. It had come into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century and after its displacement from Europe in the 1st Balkan War (1912/13) with Austria-Hungary. This escalating conflict led to the assassination of the Austrian heir…

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World War

World War

World War [for the first time in 1814 by F. L. Jahn used in reference to the wars of liberation], English World War [wə ː ld w ɔ ə], French Guerre Mondiale [gε ː r m ɔ d  al], a global, many States and peoples an exclusionary military Conflict in which the fighting extends to almost all continents and oceans and has also been able to encompass the airspace since the 20th century. The Seven Years’ War (1756–63) was…

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Venezuela Economy: Industries and Mineral Resources

Venezuela Economy: Industries and Mineral Resources

The government policy of marked incentives for the industrial sector, from which the possibility of freeing the country from excessive dependence on oil is particularly expected, has already given some good results. However, despite the standards being higher than in Latin America, productivity is low and industries cannot compete in the market. In addition to the aforementioned steel and petrochemical plants (the main refineries are located in Amuay, Cardón, San Lorenzo, Bajo Grande, Barinas, El Calvario, Morón and Puerto La…

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Venezuela Economy: Trade, Communications and Tourism

Venezuela Economy: Trade, Communications and Tourism

Within the various states, courts of first and second instance are active. The defense of the state is organized in the three traditional forces: army, navy (which includes the Coast Guard) and air force. There is also a National Guard. The military service is compulsory and lasts 30 months; the draft can be carried out, even on a voluntary basis, from the age of 18.The school system, reformed by the Chavez presidency, it is taught in private and public schools…

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Venezuela History Part III

Venezuela History Part III

The executive was given the power to dissolve Parliament, while the task of overseeing internal promotions to the armed forces, previously attributed to the Senate, was attributed to the president. Furthermore, the new Constitution restored to the military the right to vote and abolished the draft, replaced by a professional army and a civil service, the ownership of the oil industry passed to the State and finally Spanish, the official language, was joined by the recognition of indigenous languages. According…

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Venezuela History Part II

Venezuela History Part II

Gómez’s successor (1935) was General Eleazar López Contreras: moderate, he allowed the opposition to organize, authorizing the creation of the National Democratic Party, later renamed Democratic Action. In 1941 Isaías Medina Angarita ascended to the presidency, which aligned the country with the United States against the Axis and Japan. Meanwhile, opposition to internal authoritarianism grew: in 1945 Democratic Action led a revolt thanks to which he obtained elections by universal suffrage; two years later the writer Rómulo Gallegos, who carried…

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Venezuela History Part I

Venezuela History Part I

The first human settlements date back to ca. 15,000 years a. C. The residents, divided into tribes, were devoted to hunting and fishing. Christopher Columbus landed there in 1498; but the first stable nuclei of conquistadors were formed after 1512. In 1528 the Spanish Juan de Ampíes founded Coro, from which a colonization remained unique in South American history: it was the expeditions organized by German groups, dependent on the financial institutions of the Welser, of the Ehinger and Sayler,…

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Venezuela Culture and Traditions

Venezuela Culture and Traditions

A former Spanish possession, independent since 1821, Venezuela is a presidential federal republic; it includes 23 states, each with its own legislative assembly and governor, a Federal District that houses the capital, and various Federal Dependencies, consisting of some islands of the Antillean Sea, which depend directly on the central government. According to the Constitution of 15 December 1999 (which amends the 1961 Text), executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic, elected by universal and direct suffrage…

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Venezuela Population

Venezuela Population

TERRITORY: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY. THE POPULATION At the time of the Spanish conquest, in the 16th century, according to directoryaah, Venezuela was sparsely populated by Amerindian groups of fairly recent immigration, the Arawaks and the Caribs., settled along the coast, peoples who never reached remarkable levels of civilization and did not even know how to give life to a state entity of a certain size and consistency. The indigenous element failed to offer a valid resistance to the mixing and penetration…

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Venezuela Literature Part I

Venezuela Literature Part I

The country appears devoid of a real colonial culture until the eighteenth century; the first document of a local literature is José Oviedo y Baños’s History of the conquest and population of the province of Venezuela (1671-ca. 1738). The transformation of the Seminary of Caracas into a royal and pontifical university (1725) started a first cultural development which in the second half of the century. XVIII became more consistent. This allows us to understand how Venezuela was able to give…

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Venezuela Arts and Music

Venezuela Arts and Music

CULTURE: ART The flowering of ceramics in the pre-Columbian period was intense; the oldest terracotta is the one known by the name of saladero, very simple, red with white decorations, while the one found in the Barrancas area has a stylized decoration, limited to the edges, and figures of birds, human or animal heads usually rendered by engraving. Different is the pottery of the area of ​​the lake of Valencia, which presents funerary vases in red or gray earth, sometimes…

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Venezuela Theater and Cinema

Venezuela Theater and Cinema

(República Bolivariana de Venezuela). State of South America (916,445 km²). Capital: Caracas. Administrative division: States (23), Federal District (1), Federal Dependencies. Population: 28.946.101 residents (2011). Language: Spanish. Religion: Catholics 84.5%, Protestants 4%, others 11.5%. Monetary unit: bolívar (100 cents). Human Development Index: 0.764 (67th place). Borders: Antillean Sea and Atlantic Ocean (N), Guyana (E), Brazil (S), Colombia (W). Member of: Mercosur, OAS, UN, OPEC and WTO. CULTURE: THEATER According to 800zipcodes, the history of the Venezuelan theater actually begins in…

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Cuba Literature

Cuba Literature

Although it was one of the first and richest Spanish colonies, Cuba was never the seat of a viceregal court, it had no university before 1728, nor any printing house before 1707, nor a theater before 1766, in short, it lacked a true intellectual life until almost at the end of the century. XVIII (with the exception of the publication of the Espejo de paciencia, short story in verse, of 1608, due to S. Balboa Troya y Quesada, but born…

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Cuba Arts, Music and Dance

Cuba Arts, Music and Dance

CULTURE: ART In the Cuba born of the revolution, the greatest interest was brought to architecture and urban planning to solve the problems of housing: the solution of low-density building agglomerations, with single-family buildings, was then succeeded, for economic reasons, by more interventions concentrated, with extensive use of prefabrication. Among the most important realizations is the administrative residential complex of “Havana Est”, with an equipped central nucleus that alternates buildings developed in height with others horizontally, alternating with green areas,…

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Cuba Cinema

Cuba Cinema

(República de Cuba). State of Central America (109,884 km²). Capital: Havana. Administrative division: provinces (16). Population: 11,209,629 (2018 estimate). Language: Spanish. Religion: Catholics 51.7%, non-religious / atheists 23%, Protestants 5.6%, others 19.7%. Monetary unit: Cuban peso (100 cents). Human Development Index: 0.777 (73rd place). Borders: Atlantic Ocean (N), Sea of ​​Antilles (S), Gulf of Mexico (NW). Member of: OAS, UN and WTO. CULTURE: CINEMA A sporadic, semi-colonial and touristic production characterized the very long pre-revolutionary period (1897-1958), in which only…

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Poland Population

Poland Population

Due to the characteristics of the country, formed by open plains and without natural borders both to the east and to the west, prehistoric cultures never took on truly indigenous forms. To protoslav populations, who arrived in the plains in the first centuries AD. C., we owe the first permanent occupation of the Polish territory, well documented in the archaeological area of ​​Biskupin. The region after all, despite the lively exchanges that took place between the Baltic and the Adriatic,…

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Poland Geography

Poland Geography

TERRITORY: HYDROGRAPHY The deposition action exerted by the Scandinavian glaciers has decisively influenced the characteristics of the Polish hydrographic network, which centers on the Vistula and the Oder, in whose basins almost the entire territory is identified. These rivers, while generally maintaining the general SN direction, have composite courses resulting from the union of trunks formed several times on the bottom of various glacial furrows. The largest is the Vistula, the Polish river par excellence, which, born from the Beskids,…

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Poland Economy Overview

Poland Economy Overview

Reconstituted into a state unit in 1918, according to itypejob.com, Poland was still in a rather backward position at the outbreak of the Second World War, with an eminently agricultural economy. The war completely upset the modest production structure, profoundly modifying even the very structure of the territory. In particular, Poland lost almost all the oil fields located in the Northern Carpathians, the fertile lands of Volhynia and Podolia., the rich forests of the eastern territories, but on the other…

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Poland Economy: Agriculture, Livestock and Fishing

Poland Economy: Agriculture, Livestock and Fishing

(Rzeczpospolita Polska). Central European State (312,683 km²). Capital: Warsaw. Administrative division: voivodships (16). Population: 38,135,876 (2008 estimate). Language: Polish (official), Belarusian, German, Ukrainian. Religion: Catholics 88.8%, non-religious / atheists 8.9%, Orthodox 1.3%, Protestants 0.4%, others 0.6%. Monetary unit: złoty (100 groszy). Human Development Index: 0.875 (39th place). Borders: the Baltic Sea (N), Russia and Lithuania (NE), Belorussia and Ukraine (E), Slovakia and Czech Republic (S), Germany (W). Member of: Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OCDE, UN, OSCE, EU and WTO….

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Poland History and Music

Poland History and Music

HISTORY: THE NEW MILLENNIUM AND EU MEMBERSHIP The reforms implemented by the government of J. Buzek made the bloc of right-wing parties grouped around Solidarność unpopular, to the point that the new electoral consultations of 2000 reconfirmed the presidential mandate of the Social Democrat Kwasniewski and the 2001 policies decreed the clear victory of the party of the president and therefore of his candidate for premier Leszek Miller. In March 2003, after the breakup of the coalition government, a new…

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Poland Economy: Industries and Services

Poland Economy: Industries and Services

ECONOMY: SERVICES The communications network is on the whole quite efficient, but still has strong imbalances between the various parts of the country, resulting in the central-southern regions being clearly privileged, which are at the same time highly industrialized areas as well as transit and connection areas with neighboring states. The railway network retains its importance: the maximum communication hub is Warsaw, to which almost all the major railway lines belong; Wroclaw and Poznań follow in importance. Particular attention, also…

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Poland Morphology

Poland Morphology

According to directoryaah.com, Poland occupies the intermediate section of that great flat belt which extends seamlessly from the North Sea to the Urals. The Polish territory in a certain way constitutes the suture stretch between the Germanic lowlands and the Sarmatic ones and is configured as a succession of alluvial plains and slight undulations, raised only to the S, where the Sudetes (Bohemian massif) and the Beskids (Carpathians). The country is almost entirely identified with a single large plain (the…

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Poland History: From The Origins to The War of Succession

Poland History: From The Origins to The War of Succession

The Polish state had its first nucleus in the marshy depression that goes from the Oder to the middle course of the Vistula. Here lived (IX-X century) a people of farmers divided into various tribes; the main of these, the Polani, gave its name to the whole region (later called Greater Poland). According to allpubliclibraries.com, Poland entered history in the century. X when Mieszko, of the Piasti family reigning in Gniezno, made himself a tributary of Otto I to escape…

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Poland History: From The Three Divisions to The First World War

Poland History: From The Three Divisions to The First World War

Poland, which occupies a transit region in central Europe between the great plains, Germanic in the W, Sarmatic in the E, is a nation without true natural borders and its history, made up of continuous invasions and territorial divisions, is a reflection direct of geography. The Polish people, with precise ethnic, religious, linguistic and cultural connotations, had to fight over the centuries to settle on a territory with perennially changing borders and on which two very powerful neighbors were pressing…

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Poland History: From The Collapse of The Central Empires to The People’s Republic

Poland History: From The Collapse of The Central Empires to The People’s Republic

The collapse of the Central Empires (November 1918) paved the way for the formation of an independent Poland, with Paderewski as prime minister and Piłsudski as head of state and armed forces. An advance into Ukraine carried the Polish flag to Kijev; but Tuchačevskij’s Red Army repulsed Piłsudski and threatened Warsaw (August 1920), where he suffered a decisive defeat. The Treaty of Riga (1921) fixed the eastern borders of Poland; the political life of the new state was agitated by…

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Poland Literature: From Its Origins to The Golden Age

Poland Literature: From Its Origins to The Golden Age

Subjected to the communist regime for over forty years, according to 800zipcodes.com, Poland embarked on democracy with the constitutional changes of 7 June 1989, while on 31 December of the same year the denomination of People’s Republic was abolished together with the leading role of the Unified Workers’ Party. Poland, according to the Constitution of 25 May 1997, is a parliamentary republic, whose territory, from an administrative point of view, is divided into sixteen voivodships. The head of state is…

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The Kashmir Conflict Part 4

The Kashmir Conflict Part 4

Sharp UN criticism In June 2018, the UN Human Rights Council published its first report on violence in Kashmir. The report spans the period January 2016 to April 2018 and directs particularly sharp criticism at India, including for “chronic impunityfor violence perpetrated by the security forces ”. The Council criticizes the Indian Law (Armed Forces Special Powers Act) of 1990 which states that soldiers in Kashmir cannot be prosecuted without the consent of the central government. According to the report, Indian forces committed 145…

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The Kashmir Conflict Part 3

The Kashmir Conflict Part 3

Armistice and terrorist attacks After all, peace activists have occurred. In November 2000, India declared a unilateral ceasefire during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan. The ceasefire was then extended three times. It was considered the most serious peace invitation from India in eleven years. According to consistent information, the shooting around the control line largely stopped during this period. But the guerrillas did not interrupt their attacks. Most militant groups dismissed the ceasefire as “Indian propaganda.” It was not long before as many people had…

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The Kashmir Conflict Part 2

The Kashmir Conflict Part 2

Muslim guerrillas In the late 1980s, the conflict took a new turn when Muslim guerrillas entered the struggle for the part of Kashmir that India controls. During the 1980s, dissatisfaction with the Indian government had increased, especially with the advance of the Indian security service in the area. At the same time, a wave of revival swept through the Muslim world. Kashmiri youths went to Pakistan for military training and weapons, guerrilla groups were formed and a series of assassination attempts were carried…

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The Kashmir Conflict Part 1

The Kashmir Conflict Part 1

For 70 years, India and Pakistan have been fighting over Kashmir in the Himalayas and Karakorum mountain ranges. In 1949, the conflict led to the division of the border into an Indian and a Pakistani part. But no peace agreement was reached. Since then, peace efforts have been replaced by escalating violence. The world is concerned about the Kashmir conflict because both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons. The conflict arose when British India in 1947 was divided into two independent states: the secular (non-religious) India,…

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The Conflict in Yemen

The Conflict in Yemen

Since 2015, Yemen has witnessed a war that the UN has described as the worst in the world. UN organizations have estimated that 20 million Yemenis risk starvation if the war does not end and large quantities of supplies can be imported. There have been deep conflicts in Yemen long before the war of recent years. The population is divided between Sunni and Shia Muslims, society is made up of clans, it is full of weapons and the country has never had…

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How the state of Israel came to be Part II

How the state of Israel came to be Part II

Palestinian nationalism When a united Arab nation seemed impossible to realize, more and more Arab nationalists in Palestine began working for an independent Palestinian state instead. It did not necessarily mean a purely Arab or purely Muslim state. Jewish minorities have long existed in the Arab world, and Christian Arabs made up at least one-fifth of the population of Palestine at that time. The Arabs were politically divided, and they had different views on the Jewish immigrants who already existed in Palestine. In…

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