Myanmar officially has a compulsory 5-year primary school from the age of five. Then follows 4-year high school and 2-year high school.
About. 83% of children start in primary school, and 60% of them complete. In secondary school, vocational education is emphasized.
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There are 107 higher education institutions, of which 51 are universities. The higher education institutions have been closed for long periods due to political turmoil in the country.
According to UNESCO’s 2001 calculations, the proportion of illiteracy in the adult population is approx. 15%.
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On August 1, 1943, the Japanese gave the country its independence and appointed Dr. Ba Maw as head of state. The army was placed under Ne Wins command, but disputes quickly erupted between the Japanese and the socialist faction among the “30 comrades.” On March 27, 1945, the BIA declared war on Japan and was recognized by the British as Burma’s Patriotic Army. On May 30, they again marched victoriously into Rangoon, but this time by the English. Aung San organized a transitional government and in 1947 a constitution was drafted. On June 19, Aung San and several of his staff were killed by a military unit in the palace. U Now assumed the post of Prime Minister, and on January 4, 1948, the country declared itself independent.
The country’s new government was initially attacked militarily from several fronts: the rebellion among ethnic minorities, the presence of Chinese Kuomintang forces in the country involved in drug trafficking, and the armed struggle of Aung San’s army. It had been renamed the Organization of the People’s Volunteers and attached to the Communist Party.
On May 2, 1962, General Ne Win conducted a coup against U Nu, which had won the election in 1960. Ne Win nationalized the banks, the rice industry (which was the source of 70% of the country’s currency revenue) and the trade that was predominantly in Indian hands.
In 1972, a new constitution ruled that the ruling Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP) was the country’s only legal political organization.
The Ne Win regime came into ever deeper crisis following the outbreak of the world crisis in 1973, and the opposition strongly criticized “Burmese socialism”. In 1979, the country withdrew from the Alliance Free Movement. In 81, the National Congress nominated San Yu for Ne Wins successor. Win resigned from the post, but remained chairman of the party, thus retaining his control over the country.
In 1987, the increasingly serious socio-economic crisis led to public protests and demands for democracy. In August, Ne Win admitted there were flaws in the previous 25 years of economic policy. A BSPP congress appointed Sein Lwin as head of state, triggering a wave of protests in which hundreds of Buddhist monks and students died in the streets. Just 17 days after joining, Lwin was forced to resign. His successor Maung Maung liberalized the regime.
The opposition was now preparing for the elections held in May 1990. The government changed its name to Union Myanmar and abolished the term “socialist”. The name Burma corresponded only to the country’s largest ethnic population.
The National Democracy League (NLD) achieved a crushing victory with 80% of the vote, while the ruling National Unity Party (the former BSPP) only got 10 out of the 485 seats in parliament. However, the government refused to acknowledge the election result, banned opposition activities, imprisoned or banished its leaders, and severely cracked down on any demonstration.
In July 1989, NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyi – daughter of heroic anti-colonial hero Aung San – was sentenced to house arrest and interrupted communications to the outside world. She received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991.
The opposition now reorganized on the basis of an agreement between students, Buddhist monks and a number of minorities. In March 1992, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) condemned the massacres against ethnic minorities. All opposition parties were dissolved and declared illegal.
In April, General Than Swe took power. He released 200 dissidents and allowed the reopening of 31 universities and schools. At the same time, Myanmar rejoined the Alliance Free Countries movement. In September, the state of war was abolished, but Amnesty International continued to report torture in the country.
With a view to drafting a new constitution, the military regime in January 1993 instituted a National Convention. At the end of the year, there were 1,550 political prisoners in the country, according to Amnesty.