At independence, between 85 and 95% of the population was estimated to be illiterate. In the early 1980s, therefore, major investments were made in adult education with assistance from, among other things, Swedish PAGE. In 2009, the reading and writing skills of the adult population (over 15 years) were estimated to be 55% (70% for men and 42% for women).
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The primary school is compulsory and covers seven years. It is followed by a voluntary secondary school, which comprises two cycles of three and two or three years respectively. In 1972, approximately 30% of the children of the current ages for primary and secondary school were estimated to be enrolled in school. This figure increased to 52% in 1979, but decreased due to the precarious situation in the country to only 32% in 1993. In 2009, nine out of ten children in the current grades were enrolled in primary school. Access to education is worse in the north of the country than in the south. In Mozambique there are three state and one private university. Of the state expenditure for 2006, 5% was allocated to the education sector.
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Maputo, capital of Mozambique; approximately 1.77 million residents (2007). The city is located in the southernmost part of the country by a bay out to the Indian Ocean; The port is one of the most important on the coast of East Africa. Until 1976, the city was named Lourenço Marques, after the Portuguese explorer exploring the area in 1544.
Maputo grew up around a Portuguese fort from the late 1700’s. The port is the closest to the shipping of the Johannesburg area’s mining and industrial products, and it became in the late 1800’s. greatly expanded in line with the expansion of the South African mines. After the end of the civil war in 1992, the city’s port became increasingly important as a shipping port. A large aluminum smelting plant, Mozal, has been constructed for the processing of South African ore. The plant is based on local natural gas.
Prior to Mozambique’s independence in 1975, the beaches near the city had made it a popular holiday destination for white minorities in South Africa and Rhodesia. But the chaotic transition to independence and the establishment of a Marxist state, which supported the liberation movements in the two countries, set a sharp mark on the tourist influx that had previously been a significant revenue source for the city.
During the Portuguese, the city was the center of a growing industry, but most of it collapsed when the majority of the 250,000 whites in 1975 left the country. Later, South African soldiers sabotaged both the port, the roads, the railways and the electricity supply. During the 20-year civil war in the country, Maputo did not experience direct fighting, but suffered from the bad conditions. Now the local industry includes cement production, fish processing, brewery as well as furniture and textile manufacturing. The city has undergone strong development since the peace settlement in 1992, and it is attracting some foreign investment. However, there is still a deficient infrastructure.
denotes a number of joint Mozambican-South African initiatives to create new economic life along the road and rail link to South Africa. They include the renovation of Maputo’s port and investments in agriculture, industry and roads.