The compulsory schooling is 11 years and another school year is being established. Basic education and vocational education are state, but there are also some private vocational schools. Higher secondary education is provided at state or private schools. In addition, some young people study abroad, mainly in the Russian Federation. The country’s only university and its technical college, both in Ulaanbaatar, have branches in the main cities in the different regions.
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Already during the communist era great efforts were made to increase literacy. This was facilitated by the growing number of shepherd families living in places where there were schools. In 1995, 83% of the population over the age of 15 was literate. By 2000, the proportion had grown to close to 98%.
It took China almost a century to conquer Outer Mongolia, and therefore the two regions were marked by different developments. Inner Mongolia became integral to China and the jealousy of the people’s interest in preserving its power in the south led to the oyrat people unable to reunite Mongolia.
This was the last period of great wars between the Mongols and ended in general dissolution between the tribes. Several groups of sheaves remained in the south, a few chahars settled in Sinkiang and oyrat spread in several directions – even into Zar Russia.
During the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05, both armies used Mongol soldiers and auxiliary troops. From the Japanese’s point of view, a rebirth of Mongol nationalism could weaken both Russia and China. At the end of the war, Russia secretly recognized Inner Mongolia as the Japanese sphere of influence.
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At the outbreak of the Chinese Revolution in 1911, widespread dissatisfaction existed in Mongolia. Until then, the area alone had been considered a conflict area between Russia and Japan, but the dissatisfaction of the Mongols had a social and political basis and was directed at the Manchurians and the local government.
Under the leadership of their Buddhist leader, the Mongols declared themselves independent from China and sought support from Russia, which, however, due to the secret agreements with Japan and England could no longer go to an “autonomy”. After difficult negotiations, Outer Mongolia was granted this status.
This situation continued until the Russian Revolution in 1917. China sent an army unit into Outer Mongolia and forced the Mongols to sign a declaration asking for support from Beijing. But the region was subsequently invaded by Zarist troops on retreat. They threw out the Chinese and treated the Mongols hard.
Due to the treachery of the traditional leaders, their failure to deal with the Chinese invasion and the invasions of the Russian “white armies”, a group of revolutionary Mongols requested support from the Bolsheviks, and in July 1921 the capital Urga was taken by a joint Mongol-Russian unit.
This is usually regarded as the prelude to the republic, although a monarchy first introduced by the Living Buddha, which, however, had only the authority to carry out the laws of the new regime. The religious leader died in 1924, and by extension, the People’s Republic of Mongolia was proclaimed.
The Revolutionary People’s Party consisted of conservative and revolutionary nationalists. It wavered between Beijing and Moscow until Chiang Kai-shek had crushed the Chinese revolution. From this point on, it came under the ever stronger influence of the Soviet Union, which was then led by Josef Stalin.
The new republic proclaimed the woman’s right to vote – in line with the other revolutions of the period. Mongolia was still a distinctly feudal society, and the work of enforcing socialism exceeded the assaults made in other similar processes.