Until the late 1980s, Moldova’s education system was an integral part of the Soviet system. During 1990 and 1991 major educational reforms were undertaken with the modernization and avideologization of curricula and the literary curriculum. The Moldovsk national language has replaced Russian as the dominant language of instruction. The compulsory compulsory school lasts for 11 years from the age of 6 children. Four-year primary school is followed by a 7-year high school (5 + 2). About. 78% of children attend primary school, approx. 68% take higher education. In 2001, there were 49 universities, of which 35 were private.
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Mikhail Gorbachov came to power as secretary-general of the Soviet Union Communist Party in 1985. With his openness policy – perestroika – political and ethnic problems quickly emerged in Moldova. From 1988, the local Democratic movement in support of Perestroika began demanding that the Latin alphabet be reintroduced into the Moldavian written language. The Moldovan nationalists began demanding that the privileges of Russian immigrants be abolished or overtly sent home. In July 1989, it was avoided with distress that violent clashes between nationalists and Russians constituted 14.2% of the population of the republic. In August, 300,000 Moldavians in Kishineu demonstrated in favor of Moldova’s independence – with Romanian flags at the head.
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On November 10, 1989, Parliament passed the Law on the Official Language in a climate of strong tension. The Russian-speaking workers now opposed the nationalists, and 80,000 workers went on strike. At the same time, the separatist tendencies intensified in Dniéster – where the proportion of Russians is high – and in Gagasia. The Language Act made Moldavian the official language in politics, economics, the social sector and cultural life. Russian was referred to the mass media.
On August 27, 1991, the Moldovan government declared itself independent of the Soviet Union. A month later, Dniéster and Gagasia declared themselves independent republics in protest against Moldova’s independence and association with Romania.
Following the failed coup d’état against Gorbachov in Moscow in August 1991, the Moldovan government detained the leaders of the local separatist movements. In December, the first presidential election was held, with Mircea Snégur elected president. A few days later, there were clashes that cost 13 lives – among Moldovan soldiers and Russian speakers in the Dniéster region. On March 2, 1992, Moldova was formally admitted as a member of the UN. When it appeared impossible to reach a peace agreement and as the fighting continued in Dniéster, on March 16, President Snégur introduced a state of emergency and ordered all opposition forces in the region “neutralized”.
In June 1992, there was an open war between the local Prorussian government in the Dniéster region and Moldova’s army. The rebels had Tiraspol, Pridnestrovie as their capital and they managed to maintain their independence.
The Moldovan government has now renounced the use of force to resolve the conflict. At the same time, there was a divide between the Moldovan forces that agreed to merge with Romania and those who advocated an independent Moldovan state.
During the parliamentary elections, the independence parties gained a large majority, which allowed Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli to continue in office. In August, the country’s new constitution came into force declaring the country as independent and democratic. Two months ago, an agreement was signed with Moscow to initiate the withdrawal of Russian troops.