Iran has 5 years of compulsory schooling from the children is 6 years. The primary school is 5 years old, followed by 3 years of secondary school. The high school is 3 years old. The last few years have been divided between an academic and a vocational line. 80% of the pupils continue in secondary school and high school. The country has 36 universities.
After the Islamic revolution in 1979, the educational system was changed according to Islamic principles. An literacy campaign was launched in 1981. Islam is taught at all levels, and boys and girls are taught in separate classes. Curricula are prepared centrally. Emphasis is placed on vocational education and foreign language education, especially Arabic and English. The emphasis has been on literacy campaigns in recent years. In 2003, illiteracy was estimated at approx. 20% of the population; 15% of men and 27% of women cannot read and write.
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1990 Opening opening to the West
In 1990, a five-year plan was adopted, aimed at organizing economic life and diversifying the sources of income for foreign exchange. But despite the political and economic opening, the investments did not materialize. The foreign investors did not trust the clergy. The same year, information emerged that payments on foreign debt swallowed 12% of GDP.
The normalization of Iran-West relations was also hampered by the violence used by groups linked to Tehran. In April 1991, Shapur Bakhtiar’s secretary was killed. He had been Prime Minister under Shah Reza Palevi. A month later, Bakhtiar himself went the same route.
When the Soviet Union finally fell apart in 1991-92, a major new sphere of influence opened for Tehran. As early as 91, Tehran began opening embassies in the Caucasian and Central Asian Muslim republics. At the same time, trade and cultural agreements were concluded and new channels were opened for relations with neighboring countries.
An important step in Iran’s approach to the West was the release of a dozen hostages who had been in the custody of pro-Iranian forces in Lebanon. The release negotiations extended throughout 1991. Yet senior officers in the over 2,000-man Revolutionary Guard sent by Iran to Lebanon to organize Hezbolah – God’s party – said that Iran would not withdraw from the fight against the region’s biggest enemy: the United States.
At the beginning of 92, the Rafsandjani government declared it would privatize some of the major corporations that had been nationalized after the revolution in 79. The initiative was part of a more coherent policy to withdraw investment from foreigners or Iranians residing outside the country. the country.
At the parliamentary elections on April 10, 1992, the “moderates” who supported President Rafsandjani won a clear victory over the more “radical” fundamentalists. In July, the country’s spiritual leader, Khamenei, launched a campaign to “remove the Western influence”. He thus collided with President Rafsandjani’s more moderate vision of Islamism, and it ended up with the president threatening to withdraw. Still, in June 93, Rafsandjani was re-elected with 63% of the vote. The widespread boycott of the 41% election out of the country’s 29 million voters was interpreted as an expression of dissatisfaction with the corruption in top leadership.
In a situation characterized by strong tensions between the various tendencies in the leadership, in February 94, Rafsandjani escaped unharmed from an attempted assault in Tehran during the celebration of the 15th anniversary of the Islamic revolution. At the same time, relations with Saudi Arabia worsened due to disagreements over the annual pilgrimage to Mecca – the holy city of Islam located in Saudi Arabia. The dispute revealed the ongoing struggle between the two countries for leadership of the world’s Muslims.
In the economic field, the expected results did not materialize. Revenues from oil sales in the period March 94 to March 95 were $ 10.5 billion, while sales of the previous year had brought in $ 17.7 billion. The reduced revenue forced, among other things, government to remove the subsidies on 23 imported products – especially food and medicine. The consequence was that the prices of the products increased. The following year, oil revenues totaled $ 15 billion – less than projected and still less than two years earlier. Inflation and the loss of purchasing power led to increasing dissatisfaction in a large part of the population.
In July 96, the United States tightened its sanctions on Iran again and made its government responsible for terrorist actions. The sharpening triggered international resistance. At the same time, unemployment in Iran reached 10% of the economically active population.