A lot of education has been invested since Indonesia became independent. In 1987, 6-year primary school from the age of 7 was made compulsory. This was extended to 9 years in 1993. The dropout rate is large. It is estimated that approx. 21% of children drop out of the school system in primary school. The primary school is 6 years old, followed by a 3-year secondary school. There are separate Muslim children’s and youth schools. The high school lasts for 3 years. About. 47% of the relevant age group continues in high school, approx. 15% take higher education. The Bahasa Indonesia national language is the official language of instruction. However, the first years of primary school are taught in local languages. There are 51 state universities and over 1000 private universities and colleges.
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According to UNESCO’s estimates, over 11% of the population is illiterate (2000), among women approx. 15%.
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The month after, the dayak people in Kalimantan took control of parts of the province. The worst outbreak of violence in the area since 1997.
In May, 365 members of parliament voted to put Wahid in court. 4 voted against. Wahid was charged with corruption and incompetence. Prior to the vote, he had written to parliament, declaring that he refused to withdraw. At the same time, he declared the country in a state of emergency, but this call was not followed by the police or the military. The Supreme Court subsequently declared the call for unconstitutional, and in July, Parliament removed Wahid by 591 votes to 0. Vice President Megawati Sukarnoputri assumed the post. She is the daughter of Sukarno.
During a speech in August on the occasion of the 56th anniversary of independence, the president apologized to the provinces of Aceh and West Papua (Irian Jaya) for the human rights violations they had faced during the previous governments, but she also stated that they would never be allowed to tear loose as East Timor 2 years earlier. Megawati called on the two rebellious provinces to accept the government’s offer of autonomy, which according to. the president will give them greater decision-making power in home affairs. Jakarta has for decades exchanged the two provinces – oil and gas in Aceh and minerals in Irian Jaya.
In January 2002, a new human rights court in Jakarta was inaugurated. its creators were better than the International Court of Justice in The Hague. The government showed its willingness to bring the military people to justice in East Timor in 1999. Three generals, including the military commander during the massacres, Adam Damiri, were brought to court. The month after, Indonesia and East Timor signed two agreements aimed at improving the relationship between the two countries before East Timor in May had full independence.
In March, former President’s son Tommy Suharto was convicted of killing a Supreme Court judge who had sentenced him to prison for corruption. Acc. analysts said the verdict was a crucial test for the judiciary, still perceived as sensitive to corruption.
In October, more than 180 people – including 3 Danes – died in a terror attack against a nightclub on the Bali island. On the same day, another bomb exploded near the United States Consulate in Sanur without requiring victims. Both attacks were initially attributed to the Islamic terror network al-Qaeda. The government gave per. decree police extended powers to pursue suspected terrorists. That same month, the spiritual leader of Jemaah Islamiya (JI), Abu Bakar Ba’asyir, was arrested for ordering church attacks and for planning the assassination of President Sukarnoputri. The arrest led to clashes between his supporters and police.
In December 2002, the government and Aceh’s Liberation Front (GAM) signed a peace treaty in Geneva to end 26 years of violence. In May 2003, however, the negotiations broke down again, and the government launched a comprehensive military offensive in the province, declared in military state of emergency.