The school system was neglected during the British colonial rule, but after independence the general school system has been expanded. Similarly, universities and higher education have expanded significantly.
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Education is a common concern for the Länder and the central government and in 2004 occupied about 4% of the gross domestic product. The school system has four levels: primary school (5 years), higher primary school (3 years), secondary school (2 years) and higher secondary school (2 years). Most states have compulsory schooling for the first five years, and legislation on public compulsory schooling for the whole of India is pending in Parliament. Education in state schools is generally free of charge even through secondary school. The standard varies widely, and there are private schools for children from the higher classes. Between 1993 and 1994, there were 573,000 primary schools, 156,000 higher primary schools and 88,400 secondary schools. According to official statistics, all boys aged 6-11 started primary school, the corresponding figure for girls was 93%. However, only 50% of these are expected to complete 5th grade. Especially among the girls, dropouts are very common.
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The expansion of the school system has led to a significant increase in literacy, from 16% of the population over 7 years 1951 to 61% in 2001. Among women, however, the proportion of literate students was only 48% in 2001. There are special programs, so-called non-formal education, for teaching of women, children in slums, lower castes and tribal people. They are also now trying to give the teaching a more practical direction than before. Adult education has long been neglected, but received a boost during the 1990s with the so-called general literacy campaigns in most of the country. Literacy varies greatly between different parts of India and between country and city. In the state of Kerala, 2001 was 91% compared to only 47% in Bihar.
Higher education has undergone a complete revolution since independence and is now conducted at over 200 full universities and about 7,000 colleges. Most of these are financed by public funds, but in recent times the state’s commitment has been reduced in favor of so-called self-financed private colleges. During the British colonial period, humanistic studies and the education of an elite of public administration were emphasized. Nowadays, over 20% of the students read science subjects.
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Compared to the results in general education, higher education has achieved great success. In the early 1990s, the number of active scientists and technicians was over 3.1 million, and India ranked 11th in the world in this regard. The standard is very high at several universities and fully in line with the best institutions in the world. Some of the students continue to study abroad, especially in the US and Western Europe, but most of them stay and have contributed to significant scientific advances in, for example. nuclear research, space research, electronics and information technology.
In January 2004, the 4th Social World Forum was held in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The Indian reality shocked the forum’s 150,000 attendees. The country has been imbued with a caste system for 2,000 years that takes away 240 million. their rights. In 1950, the concept of “untouchable” was abolished and replaced with the concept of “dalits” (suppressed), but the situation for these remains unchanged. Only 7% of them have access to running water, electricity and sanitation. At the same time, dalits make up the majority of the DKK 40 million. Indians working under slave-like conditions – including 15 million. children. They are denied access to land, work in inhumane conditions, and are constantly attacked by the police and groups defending the privileges of the higher caste and who are under state protection.
The discrimination also affects women and is initiated even before birth. Girl children do not bring income to the family. On the contrary, they are an expense and, in 27 Indian states, abortions are carried out by girl fetuses. The consequence is that in states like Bihar and Rajasthan, there are only 60 girls for every 100 boys, though the normal ratio is 100 girls for every 103 boys. Girls and women from the lower castes are subjected to abuse and degrading treatment. Add to this the growing problem of wife-killing, where women are killed by their husbands.
Mumbai is a city with 18 million. Residents whose main road, Reay Road, is surrounded by slums on several floors where migrants from the rest of the country live, sleep, work and raise their children on the tarmac. The city is also the country’s cinematic capital. India is the world’s largest film producer and has 12 million daily. moviegoers. The cinematic capital is also called “Bollywood” and sends 1000 films to the market every year. The Indian film industry is capable of producing high artistic quality films, but most are of the “masala” type, where music and advanced choreography form the backdrop of love stories.