Hong Kong is one of the two special administrative regions of the People’s Republic of China (along with Macau). The city of Hong Kong is located on the southern coast of China, sandwiched between the South China Sea and the Pearl River Delta, and is distinguished by its many skyscrapers and spacious port. Hong Kong has a population of approximately seven million people and an area of 1,104 km2,making it one of the largest population densities in the world. The Chinese make up 93.6% of the city’s population, and the rest are of multiple ethnicities, and the majority of the population are of the Han nationality whose origins go back to the cities of Guangzhou and Taishan in Guangdong.
Modern Hong Kong has been inhabited since prehistoric times, although until the end of the Middle Ages it remained just a small fishing village of little importance. The city fell under the control of the British Empire following the First Opium War (1839-1842), expanding its borders from Hong Kong Island (from which the name originally came and the area was previously confined to it) to include a broader province that includes the Kowloon Peninsula and later the New Territories. In the mid-twentieth century, the city was subjected to Japanese occupation during the War of the Pacific, but Britain regained it after the war, and it remained a British colony until 1997, when its ownership was finally returned to China. On the other hand, the city enjoyed high freedom throughout the colonial era, as government intervention in the economy and the state was limited, and this period greatly influenced the formation of modern Hong Kong culture, which became known as East Meets West.
Hong Kong still enjoys high independence and a political system different from that on the Chinese mainland, in accordance with the principle of “ one country, two different systems ” that enshrines the city’s autonomy. The city has judicial independence that follows its structure of common law, It also has an independent basic law, and its constitution, which was drawn up after the transfer of its ownership from Britain to China, stipulates that it will have a “degree of independence” in all aspects of the state, with the exception of public relations. International diplomacy and military structure. The city has a thriving pluralistic political system, and its head of government is chosen by an electoral committee of 400 to 1,200 members, and this system will remain in place throughout the first twenty years of Chinese rule.
According to PaulSourcing, Hong Kong is one of the leading economic centers in the world, as it is characterized by a thriving capitalist economy based on low taxes and free trade. The city’s currency – the Hong Kong dollar – is considered the eighth most widely traded currency in the world. Because of the small area of the city and the large population, the need arose for infrastructure that would allow for a greater population density, and this turned it into a center for modern architecture and made it the highest city in the world, It also caused the development of the transportation network in it until it became more reliable. 90% of its population is on public transportation, which is the highest rate in the world. Hong Kong is also distinguished by its advanced international ranks in many other areas, such as economic freedom, quality of life, anti-corruption, human development, and others. According to estimates by the United Nations and the World Food and Agriculture Organization, the average human life expectancy in Hong Kong is higher than any other region on Earth.
Origin of the name
The name Hong Kong is a rough transliteration of the Cantonese or Hakani name “香港”, which means “fragrant harbour”. Before 1842, the name Hong Kong referred to a small bay – now called Aberdeen Harbor or “香港” meaning “Little Hong Kong” – located between Aberdeen Island and Hong Kong Island, and this bay was one of the first places where sailors met The British met local fishermen in what is today Hong Kong.
The origin of the title “perfume” that the Gulf acquired may lie in the mixing of its waters with fresh water coming from the Pearl River, or perhaps because of the incense that smells from numerous perfume factories along the northern coast of Kowloon, which was stored around Aberdeen Bay for export before the establishment of the port of Victoria. The Treaty of Nanjing was signed in 1842 to put an end to the First Opium War between China and Britain, and the document of this treaty was the first known official document in which the name Hong Kong was used to refer to the entire island.
In the past, it was common for the name to be written conjoined as one word, Hongkong , and this spelling continued to be used until the government decided to adopt the modern form in 1926. Despite this, some old organizations (founded before Adopting the modern form) uses the spelling of a single word.
The city’s full official name is “中華人民共和國香港特別行政區”, meaning “Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China”. This designation is the official title used for the city on its Chinese emblem, in the text of its basic law, and on the government’s official website.