The history of Bangladesh is a story of struggle for independence, rich cultural heritage, and periods of external rule. Located in South Asia, Bangladesh has a history that spans millennia. Here’s a concise timeline of key events and developments in the history of Bangladesh:
Ancient and Medieval Periods:
- 3rd Century BCE: According to a2zdirectory, the Maurya and Gupta Empires, originating from the Indian subcontinent, exerted influence over the region.
- 7th Century CE: Buddhism and Hinduism played significant roles, with the establishment of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur and the construction of Hindu temples.
- 13th Century: The region came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, followed by the Bengal Sultanate in the 14th century.
- 16th Century: The Mughal Empire established control over Bengal, ushering in a period of cultural and economic prosperity.
- 1757: The Battle of Plassey marked the beginning of British colonial rule in Bengal, part of British India.
- 19th Century: The British East India Company administered Bengal, leading to social and economic changes, including the expansion of agriculture and the introduction of railways.
- 1947: The partition of British India led to the creation of Pakistan, with East Bengal (now Bangladesh) as part of East Pakistan, separated from West Pakistan (present-day Pakistan) by over a thousand miles of Indian territory.
Language Movement (1952):
- 1952: The Language Movement in Dhaka, protesting against the imposition of Urdu as the sole official language, marked a significant step in asserting Bengali identity.
War of Independence (1971):
- 1970: General elections in Pakistan led to the Awami League, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, winning a landslide victory in East Pakistan.
- 1971: On March 26, 1971, Bangladesh declared its independence, leading to the Bangladesh Liberation War.
- December 16, 1971: The war ended with the victory of the Bangladeshi forces and the creation of the independent state of Bangladesh. The date is celebrated as Victory Day.
- 1973: Bangladesh adopted its first constitution, establishing a parliamentary democracy.
- 1975: A coup led to the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and political instability in the early years of independence.
- 1980s: Economic reforms and stabilization efforts were initiated, leading to improved economic conditions.
- 1990: A pro-democracy movement led to the ousting of the military regime and the return to civilian rule.
- 1991: Khaleda Zia became the first female Prime Minister of Bangladesh.
- 1996: Sheikh Hasina, daughter of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, assumed the role of Prime Minister.
- 21st Century: Bangladesh experienced economic growth and made progress in areas like healthcare and education.
Natural Disasters and Challenges:
- Cyclones: Bangladesh is prone to cyclones, with the 1970 Bhola cyclone being one of the deadliest in recorded history.
- Flooding: Annual monsoon rains often lead to flooding, affecting millions of people.
- Rohingya Refugee Crisis: In 2017, hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Muslims fled violence in Myanmar and sought refuge in Bangladesh.
Economic Development and Social Progress:
- Garment Industry: Bangladesh’s ready-made garment industry became a major contributor to the economy and a source of employment for millions.
- Microfinance: The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank in 2006 for their pioneering work in microfinance.
- Healthcare and Education: Bangladesh has made significant progress in reducing poverty, improving healthcare, and expanding access to education.
- Political Rivalry: The country has witnessed political rivalry between the two major parties, the Awami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP).
- Elections: Elections have been marked by controversy and allegations of irregularities.
COVID-19 Pandemic (2020):
- Bangladesh faced challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including healthcare strain and economic impacts.
According to agooddir, Bangladesh’s history is marked by a long struggle for independence and the establishment of a democratic nation. Despite challenges like natural disasters and political rivalries, Bangladesh has made significant progress in economic development and improving the lives of its citizens. The nation continues to work towards greater stability, social progress, and economic growth in the 21st century.
Two-letter abbreviations of Bangladesh
According to abbreviationfinder, the two-letter abbreviation for Bangladesh is “BD.” This abbreviation, assigned by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), serves as a concise and internationally recognized representation of Bangladesh in various contexts. Here’s a detailed explanation of the significance and use of the “BD” abbreviation:
- ISO Country Codes:
- The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) assigns unique two-letter country codes as part of its ISO 3166 standard. Bangladesh’s ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code is “BD.” This code is widely employed in international databases, forms, and systems to represent Bangladesh. It is essential for maintaining consistency in country references across various applications and industries.
- Country Code (Top-Level Domain):
- One of the most well-known uses of two-letter country codes is in the domain name system (DNS). Bangladesh’s country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is “.bd.” This abbreviation is used in internet addresses, such as www.example.bd, to signify websites associated with Bangladesh.
- International Vehicle Registration:
- Two-letter country codes are often found on vehicle registration plates, driver’s licenses, and other automotive documents to indicate the country of origin. In this context, “BD” represents Bangladesh.
- International Air Transport Association (IATA) Code:
- The IATA assigns two-letter airport codes to airports worldwide. These codes are crucial for airlines, travel agencies, and passengers for various purposes, including ticketing, baggage handling, and flight tracking. Bangladesh’s major international airport, Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport in Dhaka, is designated the IATA code “DAC,” which is derived from the “BD” abbreviation for Bangladesh.
- International Olympic Committee (IOC) Code:
- The IOC uses two-letter codes for all countries to identify them in the context of the Olympic Games. Bangladesh’s code is “BAN,” representing the country in Olympic-related activities.
- Postal Abbreviation:
- When sending international mail, the two-letter abbreviation “BD” is used in postal codes and addressing to denote Bangladesh as the destination country. It helps streamline the efficient processing and delivery of international mail.
- In the field of telecommunications, two-letter country codes are used in international dialing codes (country codes) and as part of international call signs for radio communication. Bangladesh is represented by “BD” in these systems, making it easy to identify the country in various communication contexts.
- International Trade and Customs:
- In international trade documentation, customs forms, and shipping labels, two-letter country codes are employed to specify the country of origin or destination for goods. “BD” is used for Bangladesh in these contexts, aiding in customs processing and trade facilitation.
- Travel and Tourism:
- In travel guides, brochures, and tourism-related materials, Bangladesh is often identified with the two-letter abbreviation “BD” to assist travelers in recognizing the destination.
- Diplomacy and International Relations: – In diplomatic and foreign affairs, two-letter country codes are used on diplomatic license plates, in official correspondence, and during international conferences to identify countries. “BD” is Bangladesh’s recognized code in these settings, helping maintain diplomatic protocol.
In summary, the two-letter abbreviation “BD” serves as a concise and universally accepted representation of Bangladesh. It is utilized in various applications, including internet domains, postal services, international trade, and diplomatic contexts. These abbreviations simplify references to countries in international systems, fostering clear and standardized communication across borders and industries.