Cuban education is considered to be of high quality, and Cuban students score very high on international knowledge tests in mathematics, science and languages.
After the revolution in Cuba in 1959, a dramatic quantitative expansion of the education system has taken place at all levels. Education is seen as an important means in the development of society. The combination of theory and practice, study and work, is fundamental to Cuban educational philosophy and is reflected in the content and method of education. All education from preschool to university is free and paid for by the state.
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98% of children attend preschool for at least one year. The school is compulsory for 9 years. The primary school is divided into two steps (4 + 2), the secondary school is also divided into two (3 + 3) with academic or vocational field of study. Over 95% complete 12 years of education.
About. 25% of young people take higher education. Higher education is free and offered in universities, colleges, institutes and polytechnic institutions.
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Adult illiteracy is estimated at just over 3% (2000).
Havana, La Habana, the capital of Cuba; 2.1 million residents (2012). The town is ideally located around a natural harbor on the island’s north coast approximately 175 km SW of Key West, Florida. Havana is one of the oldest and most historically important cities in the Caribbean.
The city’s development is linked to the port, which was first the gathering place of silver for the Spaniards’ annual convoy back home; later it became the strategic and trade center for the Cuban rulers and criminal organizations in the United States. Here were wealthy Americans who could settle in luxury restaurants, nightclubs and casinos and with easy access to various drugs and widespread prostitution. The 1959 Revolution put a thorough stop to this.
Havana is Cuba’s political, economic and cultural center and the port is the country’s most important. The industry in particular includes the processing of agricultural products such as sugar and tobacco; furthermore, there are iron, steel, oil and chemical industries. Cuba’s most important university is located in Havana and is particularly well known for the medical science department, which receives a large number of foreign students and who is a leading research leader in several fields.
Havana is not only an old city, but also worn. Not much has been done to preserve the old buildings; the revolutionary government gave higher priority to the development of agricultural production.
The move to Havana has not been as great as it is from other Latin American metropolitan areas, and the city is not characterized by actual slums. However, thousands of homes are hardly suitable for housing, and renovation of the housing stock is a huge task with long prospects. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused significant damage in La Habana Vieja district, which in 1982 came on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Also four fortifications at the harbor are protected under UNESCO, which provides grants for restoration of the numerous churches, palaces, monasteries, colonnades and sites of the Spanish era. This focus on the past is part of the Cuban government’s commitment to increased tourism.
Havana was founded by the Spaniards in 1515 probably on the southern coast of Cuba, but already in 1519 moved to its present location, where among other things. the climate was better. The good harbor and the opportunity to exploit the Gulf Stream towards Europe soon made the place one of the most important pile places in the Spanish colonies; the city grew rapidly, and in 1592 it became the seat of the governor.
The competing colonial powers attacked Havana several times, and during the Seven Years’ War (1756-63) the British occupied the city in 1762. At the close of peace the following year, Spain returned Havana in return for the relinquishment of Florida.
From Cuba’s secession from Spain in 1898 to the 1959 revolution, Havana was closely linked to the United States.