Education has been a high priority of the Communist Party in China since 1949, although there has at times been great disagreement over the function and content of education. During the cultural revolution, much of the higher education system was abolished, and one of the slogans was: “Rather red than expert!” During the 1980s this changed. Professional knowledge and research again gained greater importance. Since 1985, an overarching goal has been for the education system to serve socialist modernization in order to contribute to the country’s economic and social development.
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In 1986, 9-year-olds became compulsory primary school adopted by the National Congress, and the reform was supposed to have been implemented in virtually the whole country by the year 2000. This goal has not yet been met (2005), and there are major regional differences in the school supply. There is also a lot of focus on 3-year-old preschools, which is considered important because most children do not have siblings. Around 40% of children attend preschool. Most start at school as 6-year-olds in the cities, as 7-year-olds in rural areas. After primary school, there are different types of “continuing schools”, where technology, business, agriculture and health are considered important subjects. About. 60% of young people continue in high school. In principle, primary school is free, otherwise school fees must be paid at all levels of education, and school books must be purchased by students. Private schools have been allowed since the early 1980s.
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To enter universities and colleges, students must pass a state entrance exam. There is a lot of competition to enter public universities. As a result of the student riots in 1989, an additional year of political studies is now required before one can start studying. Prior to 1985, higher education was free, now students must compete for scholarships given after academic results. Around 7.5% of young people take higher education.
Before 1949 most of the population was illiterate. In 1999, the proportion of illiterates of the adult population was reported at approx. 15%.
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Chinese civilization has a number of characteristics that distinguish it from all other civilizations. No other country can show a similar societal continuity. The basic pattern of Chinese society goes back over 2,000 years in history. This societal system has been subject to change and improvement, but the basic pattern is preserved until modern times.
China has several times been conquered by people from the interior of Asia, but this has never led to fundamental changes in Chinese civilization. The comparatively few Mongol conquerors gradually became Sinified – made Chinese; They took over Chinese culture and often became more conservative than the Chinese themselves. The conquerors came from the north and the southern parts of China were never dominated by the foreigners, like the northern part of the country. China was a big country. Already in the 700s the country had a population of over 50 million. During the Han Dynasty – around the year 0 – China had about the same extent as it has today.
The Han Dynasty coincides with the heyday of the Roman Empire. But the Roman Empire perished because of internal dissolution and pressure from outside, and European civilization entered the period that some historians call the Dark Ages, when ancient culture and civilization disintegrated. China has never had a corresponding breach in its culture and civilization. China, therefore, until modern times has been the only real superpower in this part of the world. Chinese culture and civilization spread not only to the conquerors, but also to the surrounding countries. Not primarily because of military conquest, but because of the superiority of Chinese culture and civilization.
It is reason to believe that Chinese civilization was, by the end of the Middle Ages, superior to all other civilizations – including European ones.
China had a new heyday during the Tang Dynasty (618-907), when European civilization was characterized by decay, and again during the Sung Dynasty (960-1280).
As early as the 3rd century BCE, China began building the Great Wall to prevent invasions by the barbarians in the north. The structure ended up being 5,000 km long, but was ultimately unable to prevent China from being invaded by the Mongols. In 1276-1368, China was led by Genghis Khan and his grandson Kublai Khan.
Europeans who visited China after the country was conquered by the Mongols – from Marco Polo in the 13th century onwards – were full of admiration for Chinese culture and civilization. China was not simply an efficiently organized society. The Chinese had also long before the Europeans made a number of inventions, such as gunpowder, the printing press, the compass and ships with watertight bulkheads. In the 1400s, China sent large expeditions – of up to 70,000 men – to India, the Persian Gulf and to East Africa.
Some historians claim that during the Sung Dynasty – when China experienced strong economic progress and prosperous trade – there was in fact a possibility of a transition to an industrial revolution. If the Chinese trade and navy had been maintained – the Chinese navy was the European superior in the 1400s – the European advance towards South Asia in the 1500s might have been given a different character. But during the Ming dynasty that followed the Mongols, China withdrew within itself. Trade and shipbuilding ceased.
During the Manchu Dynasty (1644-1912), China had a new period of prosperity. The Mongolian people who had always been a threat in the past had now been pacified, and the Russian advance in Siberia had defiled the Mongolian people there. But from the mid-1800s, a new threat emerged: Western capitalist civilization. While Chinese society had always survived past challenges, it slowly succumbed to the clash of expanding capitalist civilization.
Beijing, Beijing, Peiping, China’s capital and second largest city (after Shanghai). In addition to the city itself, a large upland belongs to the administrative unit Beijing; a total of 16,808 km2, which has status in line with China’s provinces. The population is DKK 19.61 million. (2010).
To the north and west there are approximately 40 km to the Xi Shan and Yan Shan mountain ranges, which together with the Great Wall previously restricted access to it, while the landscape to the south and east has always opened up to the vast agricultural areas of the North China Plain. Geologically, the area consists of raised sea floor 30-40 meters above sea level
To the southeast, 150 km to the coast, where Tianjin at Bo Hai Bay has the role of Beijing’s port city. The climate is continental temperate monsoon climate with two dominant seasons. Winter is long and cold, characterized by cold northwest winds from Siberia. On average, there are 132 annual frost days and a January temperature of -4.6 °C. In the hot summer, eastern winds bring in monsoon-like rain from the Pacific. The average temperature in July is 25.8 °C.
The city is divided by a north-south axis and an east-west axis that intersect at Tiananmen Square (Tiananmen) at the main entrance to the Forbidden City. Together with the city gates, they formed the basis for a division of the city into a number of squares. With the Emperor living in the middle, the city plan reflected the Chinese view of the world, with Beijing being the symbol of Earth and the Forbidden City symbol of China, the kingdom in the middle.
Since the 1960’s, the construction of wide roads for car traffic has meant that the old city walls have finally been finalized, and partly made it more difficult to recognize the original city plan. However, the peaceful atmosphere of Beijing with low farm buildings, where several generations live together, can still be found in a few small streets, hutongs, in the inner city. Most families now live in high-rise buildings, which in a few decades have helped transform the city into a modern, hectic metropolis.
Beijing has retained its old role as a traffic hub with, in addition to a number of international connections, a large number of train and air services to all parts of China. However, it has trouble getting the capacity of the railway station and the airport to keep up with the growing needs arising from economic development.
The city’s public transport, which is primarily based on bus operation, works well and is supplemented by a subway system under constant development; millions of passengers are transported daily. In addition, the bicycle is an indispensable means of transport; bicycles in the millions characterize the cityscape in the almost completely flat city.
Business has been characterized by Beijing for centuries being the center of the vast country, and administration, service and education still dominate employment. During the centralist economic planning period, several petrochemical, textile and metal-industrial factories were created or expanded, as were several high-tech companies linked to the military.
Beijing has a versatile industrial structure with production of locomotives, cars, consumer goods and advanced computer equipment. A relatively new profession is tourism, which benefits from the city’s historic sites and the Great Chinese Wall and the proximity of the Ming Warrior Tombs to attract many Chinese and foreign guests.
Agricultural production in the suburbs and the surrounding areas is often highly specialized and aimed at supplying the metropolitan markets with all kinds of vegetables, meats and fish. Here, among other things, Chinese cabbage, maize, poultry, pigs and carp – the latter in countless aquaculture farms, which are supplied with irrigation canal water.
Beijing’s biggest problems are air pollution, water shortages, sandstorms from Inner Mongolia, traffic jams, unemployment and out-of-date housing. Large sums are being invested in infrastructure, including the expansion and modernization of Beijing’s international airport and subway, the construction of a fifth ring road and the establishment of IT infrastructure. Beijing must be China’s pattern city in the field of the environment. Many old residential neighborhoods are being brutally cleaned up.
In 2001, it was decided to build a new 4 km2 CBD (Central Business District) area in the city’s eastern Chaoyang district. In order to attract investment from the world’s largest multinational corporations and, according to the Western model, an urban district with a total floor area of 10 million is planned. m 2 divided by 50% for offices, 25% for housing and 25% for trade, service, culture and recreation.
Beijing hosted the Olympic Games in 2008, and for this purpose, a number of buildings were erected in a rural facility in the northern part of the city to run the numerous sports disciplines. The most spectacular are the mighty stadium with seating for 90,000 spectators, dressed as a bird, and the cubic swimming stadium.
Development is regionally and socially skewed. The census results from 2000 showed, among other things, that Beijing has 575,000 illiterates (equivalent to 5% of the population over 15 years), especially among the peasant population in the city’s neighborhoods, but also among the urban migrants.