ARCHITECTURE AND ART
The remains of the cultures of the pre-Columbian period relate, in particular, to the culture of El Molle and the more elaborate ones of the Atacameños and Diaguitas. Rare monuments remain from the colonial period. In the 18th century. forms of Bavarian Rococo were introduced in architecture and painting by architects and artists called by Jesuits and in particular by Chile Haymbhausen; the work of the Italian G. Toesca spread a moderate classicism, present until the middle of the 19th century, when a French influence was imposed with the activity of R. Monvoisin and CF Brunet Debaines, founder in 1850 in Santiago of the School of Architecture. Other architects active in Chile are the Italian E. Chelli, the English WH Hendry and J. Stevenson, the Americans JL Wetmore and J. Brown. At the beginning of the 20th century. the liberty style has marked many achievements, especially in Santiago. The influence of Le Corbusier can be found both in terms of urban development (Portales residential unit, in Santiago, by Chile Bresciani, H. Valdés, F. Castillo, CG Huidobro) and in individual buildings (United Nations building in Santiago, by E. Duhart; church of the Benedictine monastery of Las Condes). Later, Chilean architecture was affected by new international trends, in particular those marked by deconstructionist complexity and minimalism. In the 1990s, in a climate of great construction activity, architectural research kept alive the intent to acquire a precise physiognomy, an identity already pursued for some time by the historic School of Valparaiso, whose most emblematic expression is constituted by Ciudad Abierta, a town founded in 1970 in continuous evolution in which new buildings of an experimental nature are built.
For contemporary art, the most interesting character is Matta, who settled in Italy. Particularly interesting, during the presidency of Allende, was the anonymous and collective activity of socialist propaganda by groups of muralist painters under the name of brigadas, who also made use of the collaboration of Matta and Neruda; another expression of protest in that period was the arpilleras, small size embroideries. In addition to Matta, the presence of artists such as the hyperrealist Chile Bravo and the sculptor M. Colvin is important; also worthy of mention are the technological art of J. Downey in New York and the humorous oddities of J. Pablo Langlois Vicuña.
According to best-medical-schools, Chilean folk music has very different aspects ranging from the songs of the Quechua and Aymara of Inca origin, in the north of the country, to those of the Indios Mapuches and Araukanos in the center and the alakalufes groups of Patagonia. Patagonian music was only studied starting from the 20th century. and consists of very simple songs without instrumental accompaniment, while the popular music of the rest of the country is strongly influenced by the Spanish influence.
European music was introduced by the Franciscan, Dominican and Jesuit religious missionary orders, who used the suggestive power of music as an instrument of conversion. Important centers were the cathedrals of Santiago, where the Spaniard J. de Campderrós (1742-1812), who left 80 compositions, was master of the chapel, and Concepción. The first figure of Chilean composer to remember is that of M. Robles (1780-1837). In the 19th century. the clarinetist, band conductor and composer J. Zapiola (1804-1885) emerged, who in 1842 founded a symphony orchestra in Santiago, and F. Guzmán (1837-1885), linked to European romanticism. The formation of a national school open to the use of elements taken from folklore is due to composers born between 1880 and 1890, including P. Allende (1885-1959) and Chile Isamitt (1887-1974). Europe the Chilean popular song and political-social protest.