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Category: South America

Federal University of Paraná (Brazil)

Federal University of Paraná (Brazil)

Federal University of Parana. It is the oldest Brazilian university, founded on December 19, 1912, initially under the name Universidade do Paraná. UFPR functioned as isolated faculties until 1946 and was federalized in 1951, becoming a public institution and offering free education. Currently the university facilities are located in various points of Curitiba and in other cities of Paraná, in this institution there are 60 undergraduate course options, 124 specialization, 41 master’s and 26 doctorate. There are more than 183…

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National University of Quilmes (Argentina)

National University of Quilmes (Argentina)

National University of Quilmes (UNQ). Public university of Argentina with headquarters in the town of Bernal, in the Buenos Aires district of Quilmes. Its mission is the production, teaching and dissemination of knowledge at the highest level in a climate of equality and plurality. History The UNQ was created on October 23, 1989 by Law No. 23,749 of the National Congress and was normalized on December 12, 1992. The University building was built on land donated by the textile company…

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Colombia Human and Economic Geography 2006

Colombia Human and Economic Geography 2006

State located in the northwestern tip of South America. At the census carried out in 1993 the population was equal to 37,664,711 residents, but in the following twelve years it increased by more than a fifth (an estimate of 2005 is reached to 45,600,000 residents). Infant mortality in the period 2000-2005 recorded a value of 26 ‰, furthermore illiteracy has not yet been eradicated (it was 7.5 % in 2005). The urban population is around 76% of the total population,…

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Colombia Economy and Population 2000

Colombia Economy and Population 2000

Population During the nineties, Colombia has made significant progress in the process of consolidating its economy and similar progress has been made in the social sphere, even if on this front there is still a long way to go. Although it falls into the category that the UN – by virtue of the good performance of socio-demographic indicators – defines “high human development”, it has a modest per capita income. The new course of economic policy, launched at the turn…

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Colombia Literature

Colombia Literature

In Colombia, as in other Latin American countries, the literary history opens with the chronicles of the conquest and the descriptions of life in the new colony. The best example is El carnero (1636) by J. Rodríguez Freile, a narration halfway between the historical document and the picaresque novel. Between the 18th and 19th centuries, the struggle for independence pushed literary production towards writings intended to support the new political and spiritual trends of the nation, such as the works…

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Chile Under Spanish Rule

Chile Under Spanish Rule

The Spanish conquest of Chile was much more eventful and tiring than it had been in the other South American regions; which could never be said to be completely safe and peaceful, still for two centuries after the first settlement, due to the struggle against the Araucani, a salient fact of the colonial period in Chile. Even the very beginning of the Spanish penetration was not very happy. Diego de Almagro’s expedition (1535-1537) failed, and the impression was such that…

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Chile National and Foreign Trade

Chile National and Foreign Trade

Internal trade. – The prosperity of the mines, metallurgical workshops and nitrate producing areas has completely renewed the economic life of the town thanks to the association established between the nitrate producing provinces and those with agricultural and pastoral production that feed them. In addition to absorbing the overabundant labor force of central Chile, northern Chile consumes its flours, wines, livestock and fodder. The land of wheat and vineyards thus collects a part of the export value of copper and…

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Chile Mining Products

Chile Mining Products

One of the most conspicuous resources of Chile is given by mineral products, whose value was 1,178,000,000 pesos in 1913, and exceeded two billion in 1929. Of this total, about 55% is given by saltpeter, 35% from copper and less than 10% from all other products combined. This complex is divided as follows: 52.4% to the province of Antofagasta; 23.4% to the province of Tarapacá; 1.4% to the province of Colchagua; 6.4% to the province of Atacama; 2.7% to the…

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Chile Indigenous People

Chile Indigenous People

According to simplyyellowpages, the remains of the ancient indigenous population today gravitate mainly in the central and southern region of the country, south of the Bío-Bío river, gradually descending to the canals of Tierra del Fuego. However, it would be difficult, starting from the current one, to reconstruct the disposition of the ethnic groups as it was at the time of the Spanish conquest. Thus also the cultural heritage of the indigenous people, as it is today, bears the traces…

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Chile Geology and Morphology

Chile Geology and Morphology

As a whole, Chile, an essentially mountainous country, consists of the western side of the Andes, a series of secondary reliefs parallel to the coast and a series of longitudinal furrows between the latter and the Andes. A first division, based on the climatic characteristics, which will be discussed later, allows us to distinguish: northern Chile with very little rainfall and sometimes presenting a desert aspect; Central Chile, a land of temperate crops, and southern Chile, cold and humid, covered…

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Chile Geography and Population

Chile Geography and Population

Chile State of South America. It borders to the North with Peru, to the East with Bolivia and Argentina ; to the S and to the West it is bathed by the Pacific Ocean. The territory stretches for approximately 4200 km in the sense of latitude and does not exceed 400 km in the sense of longitude, giving an extremely developed perimeter with respect to the enclosed surface, and generating a significant amount of problems (communications, defense). Physical characters The…

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Chile Ethnography

Chile Ethnography

Under no circumstances, then, would the idea of ​​Latcham, of an original origin of the Araucanians from Argentina, be acceptable; more simply, it is a more or less profound acculturation carried out by way of osmosis through the Andean passes through an intensive nomadism, which has created real communicating compartments (e.g., the Chilean province of Cautín homogeneous to the Argentine Neuquén). But as for the substantial determinants, the Araucan heritage (wooden sculpture, exposure of the corpse on elevated frames and…

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Chile Demographics, Distribution and Population Density

Chile Demographics, Distribution and Population Density

Until 1928 the republic of Chile was divided into 23 provinces and one territory: the new subdivision introduced in that year reduced the provinces to 16, while the territory of Magellano was divided into two parts (Territorî of Magallanes and Aysen). The surface and population data are shown in this table: It should be noted that even in Chile the smaller territorial areas coincide with the territories of more ancient colonization and more populated, while the larger provinces are located…

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Chile Arts and Music

Chile Arts and Music

ARCHITECTURE AND ART The remains of the cultures of the pre-Columbian period relate, in particular, to the culture of El Molle and the more elaborate ones of the Atacameños and Diaguitas. Rare monuments remain from the colonial period. In the 18th century. forms of Bavarian Rococo were introduced in architecture and painting by architects and artists called by Jesuits and in particular by Chile Haymbhausen; the work of the Italian G. Toesca spread a moderate classicism, present until the middle…

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Chile Arts and Literature

Chile Arts and Literature

Literature The coup d’état of 1973 marks, also from the literary point of view, a profound imbalance between the rich production that preceded it and the subsequent one, which has to deal with the strong cultural repression responsible for a limited intellectual growth within of the country. To this must be added the impressive exodus of writers, a phenomenon which, in addition to preventing the drawing of a unitary picture of Chilean literature of the last twenty years, produces a…

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Chile Agriculture and Forestry

Chile Agriculture and Forestry

Breeding. – Livestock breeding, which was the main industry of the country until the middle of the last century, still retains its importance today. According to the latest censuses, the Chilean livestock herd would be made up of about 2,000,000 cattle, four and a half million sheep, 500,000 horses (including llamas) and 300,000 pigs. According to Smber, cattle spend their life outdoors. There are wintering areas and summer grazing areas. Up to 36 ° latitude, the migration of animals that…

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Venezuela Economy: Industries and Mineral Resources

Venezuela Economy: Industries and Mineral Resources

The government policy of marked incentives for the industrial sector, from which the possibility of freeing the country from excessive dependence on oil is particularly expected, has already given some good results. However, despite the standards being higher than in Latin America, productivity is low and industries cannot compete in the market. In addition to the aforementioned steel and petrochemical plants (the main refineries are located in Amuay, Cardón, San Lorenzo, Bajo Grande, Barinas, El Calvario, Morón and Puerto La…

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Venezuela Economy: Trade, Communications and Tourism

Venezuela Economy: Trade, Communications and Tourism

Within the various states, courts of first and second instance are active. The defense of the state is organized in the three traditional forces: army, navy (which includes the Coast Guard) and air force. There is also a National Guard. The military service is compulsory and lasts 30 months; the draft can be carried out, even on a voluntary basis, from the age of 18.The school system, reformed by the Chavez presidency, it is taught in private and public schools…

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Venezuela History Part III

Venezuela History Part III

The executive was given the power to dissolve Parliament, while the task of overseeing internal promotions to the armed forces, previously attributed to the Senate, was attributed to the president. Furthermore, the new Constitution restored to the military the right to vote and abolished the draft, replaced by a professional army and a civil service, the ownership of the oil industry passed to the State and finally Spanish, the official language, was joined by the recognition of indigenous languages. According…

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Venezuela History Part II

Venezuela History Part II

Gómez’s successor (1935) was General Eleazar López Contreras: moderate, he allowed the opposition to organize, authorizing the creation of the National Democratic Party, later renamed Democratic Action. In 1941 Isaías Medina Angarita ascended to the presidency, which aligned the country with the United States against the Axis and Japan. Meanwhile, opposition to internal authoritarianism grew: in 1945 Democratic Action led a revolt thanks to which he obtained elections by universal suffrage; two years later the writer Rómulo Gallegos, who carried…

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Venezuela History Part I

Venezuela History Part I

The first human settlements date back to ca. 15,000 years a. C. The residents, divided into tribes, were devoted to hunting and fishing. Christopher Columbus landed there in 1498; but the first stable nuclei of conquistadors were formed after 1512. In 1528 the Spanish Juan de Ampíes founded Coro, from which a colonization remained unique in South American history: it was the expeditions organized by German groups, dependent on the financial institutions of the Welser, of the Ehinger and Sayler,…

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Venezuela Culture and Traditions

Venezuela Culture and Traditions

A former Spanish possession, independent since 1821, Venezuela is a presidential federal republic; it includes 23 states, each with its own legislative assembly and governor, a Federal District that houses the capital, and various Federal Dependencies, consisting of some islands of the Antillean Sea, which depend directly on the central government. According to the Constitution of 15 December 1999 (which amends the 1961 Text), executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic, elected by universal and direct suffrage…

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Venezuela Population

Venezuela Population

TERRITORY: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY. THE POPULATION At the time of the Spanish conquest, in the 16th century, according to directoryaah, Venezuela was sparsely populated by Amerindian groups of fairly recent immigration, the Arawaks and the Caribs., settled along the coast, peoples who never reached remarkable levels of civilization and did not even know how to give life to a state entity of a certain size and consistency. The indigenous element failed to offer a valid resistance to the mixing and penetration…

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Venezuela Literature Part I

Venezuela Literature Part I

The country appears devoid of a real colonial culture until the eighteenth century; the first document of a local literature is José Oviedo y Baños’s History of the conquest and population of the province of Venezuela (1671-ca. 1738). The transformation of the Seminary of Caracas into a royal and pontifical university (1725) started a first cultural development which in the second half of the century. XVIII became more consistent. This allows us to understand how Venezuela was able to give…

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Venezuela Arts and Music

Venezuela Arts and Music

CULTURE: ART The flowering of ceramics in the pre-Columbian period was intense; the oldest terracotta is the one known by the name of saladero, very simple, red with white decorations, while the one found in the Barrancas area has a stylized decoration, limited to the edges, and figures of birds, human or animal heads usually rendered by engraving. Different is the pottery of the area of ​​the lake of Valencia, which presents funerary vases in red or gray earth, sometimes…

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Venezuela Theater and Cinema

Venezuela Theater and Cinema

(República Bolivariana de Venezuela). State of South America (916,445 km²). Capital: Caracas. Administrative division: States (23), Federal District (1), Federal Dependencies. Population: 28.946.101 residents (2011). Language: Spanish. Religion: Catholics 84.5%, Protestants 4%, others 11.5%. Monetary unit: bolívar (100 cents). Human Development Index: 0.764 (67th place). Borders: Antillean Sea and Atlantic Ocean (N), Guyana (E), Brazil (S), Colombia (W). Member of: Mercosur, OAS, UN, OPEC and WTO. CULTURE: THEATER According to 800zipcodes, the history of the Venezuelan theater actually begins in…

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Semester Abroad in Argentina

Semester Abroad in Argentina

Reasons for a semester abroad in Argentina Studying at a high level The country’s education system enjoys a very good international reputation. Higher education traditionally has a special place in the South American country featured by agooddir. Many universities and courses are known for their high level. The private universities in particular stand for very good teaching and an excellent supervisory relationship. Semester programs for international students Some Argentine universities offer special academic semester programs for international students. These make…

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Child Education in Dominican Republic

Child Education in Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic is located in the Caribbean Sea and shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti in the west. The country has a tropical climate and is located in the middle of a hurricane belt. Therefore, the Dominican Republic has major problems with natural disasters. After several decades of economic decline caused by political unrest, the country has now stabilized, but is still struggling with widespread corruption and low confidence in the authorities. Domestic violence is widespread and women…

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Venezuela Education

Venezuela Education

Officially, the school is mandatory for 10 years for children aged 6 to 15 with 6-year primary school and 3-year secondary school. 1 year preschool is also compulsory. High school is 2 years old. There is a big difference in school standards between cities and rural areas. 90% of children attend primary school, and approx. 60% of them go on to high school. There are over 90 higher education institutions, both private and public, including 20 universities. In 2003, approx….

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Uruguay Education

Uruguay Education

Training Since the period of military dictatorship until 1985, education has been invested as part of the country’s economic recovery. Uruguay has the highest literacy level in Latin America. The school system, which is essentially state, consists of six-year primary school (starting at age 6) followed by a secondary school in two stages of each three years, the “basic cycle” and “baccalaureate”. The latter stage is divided into a university preparation and a vocational preparation program. In 1996, 91% of…

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Suriname Education

Suriname Education

It is compulsory and free schooling for children aged 6 to 12 years. The primary school is 6 years old, the secondary school is two-fold (4 + 3 years). The country has a university in Paramaribo. TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA: Visit to find a full list of ACT testing locations in Suriname. Also covers exam dates of 2021 and 2022 for American College Test within Suriname. Land area 163,820 km² Total population 609,569 Residents per km² 3.7 Capital Paramaribo Official language Dutch Income…

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Peru Education

Peru Education

Training According to Bridgat, the education system in Peru has since the beginning of the 1960s expanded greatly in connection with the rapid urbanization. At the same time, the state’s influence over governance and financing has increased. The proportion of illiterates in the adult population decreased from 38% in 1963 to 10% in 2007. Almost half of the population speaks native (Native American) languages, which means that many primary schools are taught in both Quechua and Spanish. Best-medical-schools: Brief everything…

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Paraguay Education

Paraguay Education

It is 6 years compulsory and free primary school from the children is 6 years. 91% of children attend primary school, and 50% continue in high school. But there are major regional differences, and the dropout rate during school hours is large. The high school is 6 years (3 + 3 years). The country has two universities in Asuncion, one state and one Catholic private. In 1991–92 four new universities were established. According to UNESCO’s calculations, approx. 8% of the…

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Guyana Education

Guyana Education

Training Schooling is compulsory and free of charge between the ages of 6 and 15. 95% of children attend the six-year primary school (2008). Most also go on to secondary school, which consists of a five-year part and a final two-year part. Since 1976, all schools have been state-run, and increased integration between different population groups has since been one of the school’s main goals. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in…

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Ecuador Education

Ecuador Education

Training Ecuador officially has a compulsory and free six-year elementary school for ages 6-14. In practice, schooling becomes very sporadic for many children. Some quit already after a year to help with the family’s livelihood, and only a minor part of the school attend the school. Many students also fail in the rigid exam system. School conditions are significantly worse in rural areas than in cities. Agooddir: Features recent history of Ecuador starting from the second world war to 21st…

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Colombia Education

Colombia Education

It is a 10-year compulsory school in Colombia. Until 1990, the country had a centralized education system. A2zdirectory: Describes prehistory and early history of Colombia. Includes history from colony to an independent nation. Following a comprehensive reorganization and regionalization in 1990, a national education plan was developed which suggests that much can be decided at local level. The language of instruction is Spanish. Only scattered attempts have been made to prepare educational materials in local Native American languages. Large parts…

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Chile Education

Chile Education

Training During the colonial period, Chilean teaching was handled by the church. According to Bridgat, the first general education was organized in the mid-19th century, built and organized by the Venezuelan writer and philologist Andrés Bello, rector of the University of Santiago. However, it was not until 1920 that basic education for the ages of 7–15 years became compulsory. Illiteracy is very low in Latin American conditions, below 6%. Writing and reading skills increased from 50% to 80% during 1920–50….

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Brazil Education

Brazil Education

In Brazil, 8-year-olds are compulsory and free primary school from the children is 7 to 14 years old. About. 97% of children start primary school. The high school lasts for 3 to 4 years. About. 70% of the 15-17 age group starts in high school. The operation of primary and secondary schools falls under the state and municipalities. Education policy has emphasized decentralization of the education sector since the 1990s. A2zdirectory: Describes prehistory and early history of Brazil. Includes history…

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Bolivia Education

Bolivia Education

There are eight years of compulsory and free schooling in Bolivia from the children are six years. The secondary school is voluntary and lasts up to four years. A2zdirectory: Describes prehistory and early history of Bolivia. Includes history from colony to an independent nation. In 2000, 96% of children started primary school, while just over 83% of them completed 4th grade. 68% of the age group continued in high school. In 1996, 25% of the population received higher education. TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA:…

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Argentina Education

Argentina Education

Training The standard of education in Argentina is good according to Latin American conditions. To this has been contributed the tradition of “Teaching President” Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (President of Argentina 1868-74). When Perón took office in 1946, the quality of teaching declined, mainly because of political freedom. However, more citizens than before came to enjoy education by building new schools. Tax exemption was also introduced for many of them. Less than 3% of the population is illiterate, which is a…

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