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Category: Europe

Sudeten German

Sudeten German

Sudeten Germans, name coinedby F. Jesser in 1902 for the German-speaking population in Bohemia and Moravia (including Moravian Silesia, later also called “Sudeten Silesia”) within Austria-Hungary; replaced the collective term “Germans in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia” used in the 19th century. The term Sudeten nationalized at first slowly and then in connection with one that the German minority by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Paris suburb treaties had become collectively citizens of the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic (Czechoslovakia)) (1919: 3, 3 million, 1935:…

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Best Travel Time for the Netherlands

Best Travel Time for the Netherlands

Basically any time is suitable to visit the Netherlands. However, one should prepare for stormy and changeable weather. There are only a few in summer sunny days. According to best-medical-schools, precipitation is evenly distributed over the year, with short, heavy downpours in spring. As in much of Europe, the high season is between June and August. During this period there are numerous holidaymakers in the country, but these are the best months to spend the time in cafes or in…

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United Kingdom History: The Advent of The Bourgeoisie and The Municipalities

United Kingdom History: The Advent of The Bourgeoisie and The Municipalities

He was the founder of a new dynasty under which (from 1485 to 1603) England underwent important transformations. First of all, the decimation of the great feudal nobility favored the advent of the bourgeoisie on which the kings of that family relied firstly to trim down the claims of true or false aspirants to the throne, then to fight the Catholic Church with which Henry VIII, who also he had refuted Luther’s doctrine by earning the title of Defensor Fidei (1521), had…

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France Human Geography

France Human Geography

Thanks to the favorable environmental conditions, the French territory has attracted man since the most remote times. In the upper Paleolithic it hosted brilliant civilizations of hunters, whose presence is testified among other things by the wall paintings of the Dordogne; in the Neolithic dense agricultural settlements flourished in the clearings of the ancient Atlantic forest, in many areas including the Paris Basin. Due to its position of convergence within Europe, the cultural contributions that France received in those epochs…

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Hungary Territory

Hungary Territory

The arc of the Carpathians to the E and N, the extreme offshoots of the Eastern Alps to the W, the external slope of the Dinaric system to the S enclose one of the largest tectonic depressions in Europe, the Pannonian basin (or plain), which, included in mostly within the borders of Hungary, determines the dominant aspect of the landscape; however, due to the complex geological events that have gradually shaped it and the different composition of the soil, it…

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UAB Exchange Program

UAB Exchange Program

Application to the host university I applied for the Pre-established Program at Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB) through MicroEDU. It was a very good decision. The MicroEDU staff are very helpful and will help you with questions or double-check that your application documents are complete. A short time later I received the acceptance. In addition, shortly before your stay abroad, MicroEDU will send you a mailing list in which all other students who have applied to UAB through them are…

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RSU Exchange Program

RSU Exchange Program

I have been studying human medicine in Riga in the first semester since February 2018. In 2016 I finished my Abitur with a 1.6 NC in Lower Saxony. I had art, German and geography as advanced courses. I didn’t have chemistry or physics at all, math only as a skinner and bio as a written examination subject, at a basic level. After that I worked, did a 2 month nursing internship and traveled for almost 5 months. After my TMS…

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GCD Exchange Program

GCD Exchange Program

University The university looks pretty good from the outside, it’s a pretty old and beautiful building. However, the rooms are old and not modern. There is absolutely no comparison to the German standard. There are some lecture rooms that have been renovated, but most of the rooms are in need of renovation. What bothered me most personally was the library and the opening times. Too few seats, small and old study area and the heating did not always work. In…

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The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part VI

The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part VI

Hitler’s plans to attack the USSR: The preparations for an attack on the Soviet Union that began in the summer of 1940 on Hitler’s orders led to a first “Operation Draft East” of August 5, 1940, to Hitler’s “Directive number 21: Barbarossa case” of August 18, 1940 12. 1940; this set the task of the Wehrmacht “to overthrow Soviet Russia in a quick campaign even before the end of the war against England.” In the v. a. by General F….

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The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part V

The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part V

The expansion of the war to the Balkans and the Mediterranean: that of Mussolini without prior notification to Hitler The “parallel war” that had begun (from September 1940, from Libya towards Egypt) to expand Italy’s position of power in the Mediterranean region led to German support measures in the Mediterranean region after severe Italian defeats by British troops. The failure of the surprising Italian attack on Greece (from October 28, 1940) prompted the preparation of a German military intervention in…

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The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part IV

The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part IV

In the likewise intensified trade war (August 1940 to June 1941) 5.1 million GRT were sunk. However, the number of German submarines was too small to seriously endanger the access routes across the Atlantic from the newly won bases in western France. To strengthen the escort, Great Britain received 50 destroyers from the USA in September 1940 against the leasing of bases in Newfoundland, the Caribbean and the western Atlantic. The battleship “Bismarck”, which set out for the trade war…

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The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part III

The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part III

The French army lost 92,000 men in the fighting, the German 27,000. The Belgians lost 7,000, the British 3,500 and the Dutch 3,000. German troops occupied the Atlantic coast as far as the Spanish border, but the French colonial empire and the French fleet remained under the control of the Pétain government. This moved to the unoccupied zone in southern France to Vichy on July 1, 1940 (until 1944 the seat of the “État Français”). The previous Undersecretary of State…

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The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part II

The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part II

The conclusion of the Finnish-Soviet peace treaty of March 12, 1940, under which Finland was able to maintain its independence while losing territory, thwarted the intentions of the Western powers to occupy the Swedish ore area, which is important for Germany, under the pretext of helping Finland. At the end of January 1940, Hitler made a decision to occupy Norway by a surprise landing and to take Denmark to secure the connections; The military operation (operation “Weser Exercise”) was prepared…

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The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part I

The Second World War in Europe 1939–1945 Part I

From the attack on Poland to the occupation of Denmark and Norway: As a result of the numerical and above all armed forces superiority as well as the concentration of the majority of the German army and air forces in the east and the passivity of the Western powers persisting in the “seated war” behind the Maginot Line, which themselves are still insufficient were armed and overestimated the military strength of Germany, the military conquest of Poland succeeded in a…

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First World War

First World War

First World War, global war, starting from Europe, in the years 1914-18.  After the aborted naval battle on the Skagerrak (May 31 / June 1, 1916), the British fleet limited itself to the blockade at the North Sea access points. The unrestricted submarine war in Germany led to the USA entering the war (April 6, 1917). Before American intervention could take effect, the German army tried from March to July 1918 to force the decision through large-scale attacks on the…

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The Political Dimension of the First World War

The Political Dimension of the First World War

The First World War began as a pure war of power, but won through the Russian Revolution in 1917, the entry of the United States into the war and the “Fourteen Points” of American President W. Wilson as well as a new political dimension with the demand for national self-determination and through the social revolution in most warring states as an answer from below to the war: the Central Powers under the leadership of Germany were predominantly attached to a…

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The Military Dimension of the First World War Part V

The Military Dimension of the First World War Part V

After the defeat in the naval battle near Heligoland (August 28, 1914 loss of three cruisers), the German ocean-going fleet was held back. The advance against the British east coast led to the naval battle on the Dogger Bank (January 24, 1915), which was also unfavorable for the German Navy, with the loss of the battle cruiser »Blücher«. Thereupon Germany began the unrestricted submarine war (February 4, 1915) with the torpedoing of warring and neutral merchant ships without warning in…

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The Military Dimension of the First World War Part IV

The Military Dimension of the First World War Part IV

The Entente counteroffensive and the collapse of the Central Powers: On the Allied side, General F. Foch in April 1918 assumed command of all land forces. He started his counter-offensive on July 18th. with a flank thrust from the forest of Villers-Cotterêts, which led to the withdrawal of the German front behind the Vesle. More on 8.8. (“Black Day of the German Army”) east of Amiens, supported by tanks and aircraft, pushed the Germans back into the “Siegfriedstellung”. At the…

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The Military Dimension of the First World War Part III

The Military Dimension of the First World War Part III

Despite the victory over Romania and the repulsion of all attacks, the situation of the Central Powers was serious at the end of 1916. The 1914 British remote blockade in the North Sea and the Canal began to take effect (famine in Germany, “turnip winter” 1916/17). The Danube Monarchy was shaken by the internal opposition of the Slavs and the death of Emperor Franz Joseph I (November 21); Attempts by his successor, Charles I , to achieve a separate peace…

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The Military Dimension of the First World War Part II

The Military Dimension of the First World War Part II

The fighting in the west and east 1915: Tried in the winter battle in Champagne (16.2. – 19.3.), The spring battle in Artois (9.5. – 18.6.) And the autumn battle in Artois and Champagne (22.9. – 14.10.) the French and British, with increasing use of forces and materials, in vain to break through the German defensive front in the west. A German attack to cut off the Ypres arch (April 22nd – May 24th) did not get beyond the initial…

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The Military Dimension of the First World War Part I

The Military Dimension of the First World War Part I

Due to the global expansion of the power system, fighting took place on almost all continents and most of the great seas, as well as in the air. The focus of the fighting on land was Europe with two main fronts (western and eastern front) and two secondary fronts (southeast with changing locations: Serbia, Romania, Thessaloniki front; southern front: Italy, from 1915). In addition, there were three fronts of the Ottoman Empire as an extension of the southeast front: against…

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The Prehistory of the First World War in 1914 Part II

The Prehistory of the First World War in 1914 Part II

The next big crisis, the Bosnian annexation crisis (1908/09), was located in the east: the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which had only been occupied in 1878, by Austria-Hungary provoked a sharp protest from Serbia, which saw itself supported by Russia. With a veiled ultimatum, Germany forced Russia, which was still militarily weakened, to give in, which in turn caused Serbia to withdraw. What remained was the growing national bitterness in Serbia and the inner hopelessness in Bosnia and Herzegovina:…

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The Prehistory of the First World War in 1914 Part I

The Prehistory of the First World War in 1914 Part I

The prehistory of the First World War, the “great catastrophe of the 20th century”, is extraordinarily multifaceted. The immediate triggering factor, but in turn afflicted with a complicated previous development ( Balkan inquiry), was the South Slav national movement in the Balkans. It had come into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century and after its displacement from Europe in the 1st Balkan War (1912/13) with Austria-Hungary. This escalating conflict led to the assassination of the Austrian heir…

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World War

World War

World War [for the first time in 1814 by F. L. Jahn used in reference to the wars of liberation], English World War [wə ː ld w ɔ ə], French Guerre Mondiale [gε ː r m ɔ d  al], a global, many States and peoples an exclusionary military Conflict in which the fighting extends to almost all continents and oceans and has also been able to encompass the airspace since the 20th century. The Seven Years’ War (1756–63) was…

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Poland Population

Poland Population

Due to the characteristics of the country, formed by open plains and without natural borders both to the east and to the west, prehistoric cultures never took on truly indigenous forms. To protoslav populations, who arrived in the plains in the first centuries AD. C., we owe the first permanent occupation of the Polish territory, well documented in the archaeological area of ​​Biskupin. The region after all, despite the lively exchanges that took place between the Baltic and the Adriatic,…

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Poland Geography

Poland Geography

TERRITORY: HYDROGRAPHY The deposition action exerted by the Scandinavian glaciers has decisively influenced the characteristics of the Polish hydrographic network, which centers on the Vistula and the Oder, in whose basins almost the entire territory is identified. These rivers, while generally maintaining the general SN direction, have composite courses resulting from the union of trunks formed several times on the bottom of various glacial furrows. The largest is the Vistula, the Polish river par excellence, which, born from the Beskids,…

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Poland Economy Overview

Poland Economy Overview

Reconstituted into a state unit in 1918, according to itypejob.com, Poland was still in a rather backward position at the outbreak of the Second World War, with an eminently agricultural economy. The war completely upset the modest production structure, profoundly modifying even the very structure of the territory. In particular, Poland lost almost all the oil fields located in the Northern Carpathians, the fertile lands of Volhynia and Podolia., the rich forests of the eastern territories, but on the other…

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Poland Economy: Agriculture, Livestock and Fishing

Poland Economy: Agriculture, Livestock and Fishing

(Rzeczpospolita Polska). Central European State (312,683 km²). Capital: Warsaw. Administrative division: voivodships (16). Population: 38,135,876 (2008 estimate). Language: Polish (official), Belarusian, German, Ukrainian. Religion: Catholics 88.8%, non-religious / atheists 8.9%, Orthodox 1.3%, Protestants 0.4%, others 0.6%. Monetary unit: złoty (100 groszy). Human Development Index: 0.875 (39th place). Borders: the Baltic Sea (N), Russia and Lithuania (NE), Belorussia and Ukraine (E), Slovakia and Czech Republic (S), Germany (W). Member of: Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OCDE, UN, OSCE, EU and WTO….

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Poland History and Music

Poland History and Music

HISTORY: THE NEW MILLENNIUM AND EU MEMBERSHIP The reforms implemented by the government of J. Buzek made the bloc of right-wing parties grouped around Solidarność unpopular, to the point that the new electoral consultations of 2000 reconfirmed the presidential mandate of the Social Democrat Kwasniewski and the 2001 policies decreed the clear victory of the party of the president and therefore of his candidate for premier Leszek Miller. In March 2003, after the breakup of the coalition government, a new…

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Poland Economy: Industries and Services

Poland Economy: Industries and Services

ECONOMY: SERVICES The communications network is on the whole quite efficient, but still has strong imbalances between the various parts of the country, resulting in the central-southern regions being clearly privileged, which are at the same time highly industrialized areas as well as transit and connection areas with neighboring states. The railway network retains its importance: the maximum communication hub is Warsaw, to which almost all the major railway lines belong; Wroclaw and Poznań follow in importance. Particular attention, also…

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Poland Morphology

Poland Morphology

According to directoryaah.com, Poland occupies the intermediate section of that great flat belt which extends seamlessly from the North Sea to the Urals. The Polish territory in a certain way constitutes the suture stretch between the Germanic lowlands and the Sarmatic ones and is configured as a succession of alluvial plains and slight undulations, raised only to the S, where the Sudetes (Bohemian massif) and the Beskids (Carpathians). The country is almost entirely identified with a single large plain (the…

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Poland History: From The Origins to The War of Succession

Poland History: From The Origins to The War of Succession

The Polish state had its first nucleus in the marshy depression that goes from the Oder to the middle course of the Vistula. Here lived (IX-X century) a people of farmers divided into various tribes; the main of these, the Polani, gave its name to the whole region (later called Greater Poland). According to allpubliclibraries.com, Poland entered history in the century. X when Mieszko, of the Piasti family reigning in Gniezno, made himself a tributary of Otto I to escape…

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Poland History: From The Three Divisions to The First World War

Poland History: From The Three Divisions to The First World War

Poland, which occupies a transit region in central Europe between the great plains, Germanic in the W, Sarmatic in the E, is a nation without true natural borders and its history, made up of continuous invasions and territorial divisions, is a reflection direct of geography. The Polish people, with precise ethnic, religious, linguistic and cultural connotations, had to fight over the centuries to settle on a territory with perennially changing borders and on which two very powerful neighbors were pressing…

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Poland History: From The Collapse of The Central Empires to The People’s Republic

Poland History: From The Collapse of The Central Empires to The People’s Republic

The collapse of the Central Empires (November 1918) paved the way for the formation of an independent Poland, with Paderewski as prime minister and Piłsudski as head of state and armed forces. An advance into Ukraine carried the Polish flag to Kijev; but Tuchačevskij’s Red Army repulsed Piłsudski and threatened Warsaw (August 1920), where he suffered a decisive defeat. The Treaty of Riga (1921) fixed the eastern borders of Poland; the political life of the new state was agitated by…

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Poland Literature: From Its Origins to The Golden Age

Poland Literature: From Its Origins to The Golden Age

Subjected to the communist regime for over forty years, according to 800zipcodes.com, Poland embarked on democracy with the constitutional changes of 7 June 1989, while on 31 December of the same year the denomination of People’s Republic was abolished together with the leading role of the Unified Workers’ Party. Poland, according to the Constitution of 25 May 1997, is a parliamentary republic, whose territory, from an administrative point of view, is divided into sixteen voivodships. The head of state is…

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Residence Permit for Studying in the Czech Republic

Residence Permit for Studying in the Czech Republic

According to best-medical-schools, the Czech Republic is becoming increasingly popular as a study destination for international students. This is not only the case with regard to a temporary study visit, such as a “classic” semester abroad. When it comes to studying medicine, our eastern neighbor offers an interesting alternative, especially for German school leavers. This is not only due to the moderate admission requirements compared to Germany. Another plus point is the direct proximity to the home country and the…

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UOB Review

UOB Review

My semester abroad in Birmingham was a great experience that I can only recommend to everyone! Since I major in English, it was important to me to spend some time in an English-speaking country and now that I have it behind me, I am very happy to have made this decision. MicroEDU relieved me of all the bureaucratic hassle with the university, was able to place me quickly and supported me so well. It is worth booking a flight relatively…

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SHU Review

SHU Review

There was a time I couldn’t see myself growing older, but then I went for a walk…. when I came back I was so much taller It all started on a normal September day. Pack your suitcase, get on the plane, Summerrain in my face, like snowflakes falling from space. It was so beautiful and then I pass the mountains. . off to the island. Well, it wasn’t that easy after all. Preparations, applications, formalities, bureaucracy, but everything was only…

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UAB Review

UAB Review

I still can’t believe the four months here in Barcelona, ​​Spain are over. The time here was very intense and special for me. I recognized many things and became a completely new and changed person. When I got here, I was so scared that I would not find friends or an apartment. Now I know that these worries were absolutely unnecessary. I mean, I’ve met so many people from all over the world and had the opportunity to make real…

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Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Student Review

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Student Review

Since it is compulsory at my university in Munich to spend a semester abroad and Spanish is one of my main subjects, it has long been clear to me that I wanted to go to Barcelona. When it was time to get more detailed information and organize everything, I stumbled upon your website by chance during my research and out of my enthusiasm I sent a short request straight away. Everything else was very easy – I was told exactly which documents I had to…

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