When Canada became an independent federal state in 1867, responsibility for all education was added to the provinces. This scheme was maintained in the Constitution of 1982. The country’s 10 provinces and 3 territories have their own laws and an education department that supervises academic and educational supervision of the schools. Some provinces also have their own Ministry of Higher Education.
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In 1967, the Council of Education Ministers (Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, CMEC) was established, primarily to collect data and initiate research and disseminate information of national interest. The Canadian Education Statistics Council was established in 1989. It has strengthened cooperation between the provinces and the federal government. That same year, a national evaluation instrument for writing, reading and math skills of elementary school (School Achievement Indicators Program) designed to assist the provinces in their planning. The Federal Government bears all expenses for the education of Indians and Inuit in primary and secondary schools. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Canada.
Although the school system varies somewhat from province to province, there are major similarities in the educational process. The compulsory school starts at the age of 5 or 6 and lasts until the age of 13 or 14. Then follows the 3-5 year high school. Almost all students continue in high school. Higher education is not differentiated, i.e. courses in general and vocational subjects are offered within the same school. The total schooling is 12 years in most provinces. The language of instruction is English or French. About. 6% of students attend private schools.
Higher education is provided at colleges and universities and at higher vocational schools. About. 60% of young people take higher education. There are over 275 higher education institutions in the country, of which 75 have university status. There are over 200 colleges. Most universities are English-speaking.
Among the largest and most famous are the University of Toronto, founded in 1827, and McGill University in Montreal, founded in 1967. Among the major French-speaking universities are the Université Laval, Quebec, founded in 1852, and the Université de Montréal, founded in 1878.
Although the provinces and territories are self-governing in education issues, there has been great agreement on the content of education. In the 1960s and 1970s, content and teaching methods were the subject of reform and experimentation. Student-centered learning, “learning by doing”, open school and open teaching were central. In the 1980s and 1990s, these directions have been the subject of criticism, and new reforms emphasize the core curriculum, ethnic and gender issues. Statistically, illiteracy does not exist, but functional illiteracy is a growing problem.
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The Inuit, who are the traditional residents of the Belcher Islands in the Hudson Bay, and who have traditionally sailed around hunting and fishing, were not taken into account at the time of the agreement. Naturally, they are deeply concerned about the impact on the environment and their living conditions.
Currently, in Canada there are 326,000 Indigenous people gathered in 577 groups as well as 25,000 Inuit. At least 100,000 masters and natives – some mention numbers up to 850,000 – are assimilated into the dominant culture. Acc. the official statistics make up 4% of the total population. Canada’s indigenous population has increasingly quit to defend their rights. In the 1960-70’s, the National Indigenous Board (NIB) was set up to represent them to the public and the federal government. A short time ago, the NIB was replaced by the Organization for First Indigenous Nations (OFIN). The indigenous peoples demand respect for the treaties concluded which uphold their rights to land and other resources. Especially the people who still live by hunting and fishing like cree, dene, innu,
After World War II, the government took steps to bring together the indigenous people in a number of small reserves, and by the early 1970’s they were almost all gathered in such areas. Although Canada officially recognizes the indigenous peoples’ right to their lands, the state, through agreements, is trying to bring them together in smaller areas for financial compensation. A new generation of innuaries made the experience that it had been a mistake to accept the agreement with the government. A 1984 study found that suicide rates in northern Labrador were 5 times higher than the Canadian average. In 1988, the Indians invaded the Goose Bay base and set up a peace camp. Despite immediate police efforts, the natives succeeded in interrupting this year’s military exercises. Surprisingly, a court released four natives who were charged with the intrusion, citing that the concept of land ownership is something that is very remote from Canada’s indigenous population and therefore there was no basis for a lawsuit based on English or Canadian law. However, the government quickly overthrew this remarkable judgment that could have set a precedent for the indigenous peoples’ land claims in the region.