In Brazil, 8-year-olds are compulsory and free primary school from the children is 7 to 14 years old. About. 97% of children start primary school. The high school lasts for 3 to 4 years. About. 70% of the 15-17 age group starts in high school. The operation of primary and secondary schools falls under the state and municipalities. Education policy has emphasized decentralization of the education sector since the 1990s.
There are close to 900 higher education institutions, 25% of which are public and 75% private. 130 of these have university status. Around 20% take higher education. The federal government is responsible for higher education.
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There are large regional differences in participation in education and quality of education, especially between schools in the southern part of the country and in the poorer areas of the north. School development has also not kept pace with population growth. At all levels there are private schools, most of which are upper secondary and higher level.
Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, one of today’s best-known educators, worked to combat illiteracy in Brazil. He wrote in 1968 the pedagogy of the oppressed. His ideas have been seen as a contribution to the teaching of illiteracy throughout the world.
The proportion of illiterate persons has dropped considerably, but in 2000 it was estimated to be approx. 13% of the population over the age of 15, roughly equally divided between men and women.
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In the last decades of the 19th century, the gap between country and city increased sharply. Both between the layers in the cities, the military and the coffee producers pushed for a rapid modernization of society. For them, the monarchy was far too closely tied to the old mode of production and the cattle owners. The Republic was a more suitable model of capitalist development, these three layers required. In 1889, a conspiracy among these modernization-oriented layers gained support in the army. Pedro II abdicated and went into exile in Europe.
The abolition of slavery and the fall of the monarchy opened to a period of social, political and economic change that accelerated modernization, although not without political, social and religious trauma. The creation and consolidation of Republican institutions faced serious difficulties. In 1894, Prudente de Morais was elected the first civilian president of the republic. By 1893, the Federal Republican Party had been formed, and the same year and the following it revolted in the Navy.
In 1893-95, Brazil experienced a federalist revolution in the Rio Grande do Sul. In 1896-97, the people of Sertao in northeastern Brazil supported the Canudo War, where a religious community faced the authorities. It was first crushed when federal troops were deployed. The latter war became largely a symbol of the clash between the poor, illiterate and fanatical inner Brazil and the besieged coastal area, which was in rapid economic development and closely linked to modernization.
Until 1920, social uprisings, authoritarian explosions in the northeastern certao and the fighting between regional oligarchs were all frequent. An electoral body had not yet been set up, voting was not secret and dissatisfaction with the election results was chronic. It was no wonder, since in many cases it said deceased on the lists. The period from the creation of the republic to 1930 is also called the “old republic.”
On the economic level, coffee emerged as the most important export item. World War I, 1914-18, was for Brazil an almost euphoric economic period, as the country was one of the largest suppliers of consumer goods to the countries at war.. But in 1920-30, coffee became a problem for the Brazilian economy. International competition reduced sales, and with the outbreak of the world crisis in 1929, Brazil burned 29 million bags of coffee that could not be sold.
General information about Brazil
The colonial conquerors Spain and Portugal brought to South America two main languages born on the basis of Latin culture. Indeed, the term “Latin America” is well established and describes a great many countries in South America. However, in addition to Spanish and Portuguese, 500 other languages are also spoken on the continent.
Brazil is the largest state in South America with an area of more than eight million square kilometers. In a nation of 200 million, all skin colors are represented. The Portuguese language and the Catholic Church keep the country and its great people together. Minority religions like macumba, which came with slaves from Africa, live in harmony with the conquest religion. Extremes are present in Brazil: large cities and small rural villages like Sao Paulo, rich in fine neighborhoods and poor in favelas, areas of the Amazon – the largest rainforest area and most abundant river in the world – still largely unexplored areas or large livestock farms, hardwood forests the home region of the jaguar and tapir belonging to the Pantanal.
In Rio de Janeiro, samba is played outside of the carnival, but actually 40 days before Easter, under the leadership of dozens of samba schools, “the world’s biggest splashes” begin. Carioca, a resident of Rio, meets friends and acquaintances on the famous beaches of Copacabana and Ipanema. The atmosphere is supple when even business matters are handled casually from the sun lounger. The scenery of the city, said to be the most beautiful in the world, can be admired from either Sugarloaf Mountain or Corcovado at the foot of the Christ Statue. The Churrascaria grill restaurants offer as succulent steaks as in neighboring Argentina. On the slopes of Rio, behind skyscrapers and luxury hotels, climb the slums of favelas of hundreds of thousands of colorful houses.