The school system in the country has three levels: primary school (five years), secondary school (five plus two years), and college and college (four to seven years). The primary school is in principle compulsory and is free of charge with the exception of teaching materials. About 70% of children aged 5-10 attend primary school, 15% of 11-15 year olds are enrolled in secondary school, and of 16-17 year olds receive 4% education in the two years preceding college and college. There are about ten universities in Bangladesh, the two largest in Dhaka, and a number of colleges, technical schools and teacher training seminars. Vocational training is under development.
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In principle, teaching in Bengali continues at all levels of education except for college and college, where English predominates. They mainly invest in so-called finer higher schools at the expense of the primary school. The reading and writing skills of the adult population are below 40%, for women below 30%.
The higher schools have been British role models since the colonial era and therefore have little connection to local conditions. As a whole, the educational standard in Bangladesh is poor and is an obstacle to the country’s development.
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In August 2013, the Supreme Court withdrew the registration of the Islamic Party Jamaat-e-Islami, and banned it from running for future elections. The party advocated displacement of ethnic and religious minorities in the country and reunification with Pakistan. Since the 1980s, it had entered into various alliances with the Nationalist Party GDP and had also held ministerial posts, but its popularity had declined in previous years and in 2008 it gained only 2 seats in parliament. In 2010, the government opened a criminal record of the crimes committed during the War of Independence in 1971 and in March 2013, three Jamaat members were convicted of crimes in 1971. In response, Jamaat conducted extensive protests and demonstrations across the country that caused extensive material damage and cost 60 lives. Most killed by security forces. Jamaat is not illegally decided, but simply cannot stand for the elections. It has since participated in the BNP’s protest actions against the government.
At the January 2014 parliamentary elections, Hasina’s Awami League passed 4 seats and gained 234 seats in the 300-seat parliament. This happened on the basis of 79.1% of the vote. The second largest party was Jatya Party (JP) which, on the basis of 11.3% of the votes, got 34 seats. However, the background was bloody. Through 2013, the opposition coalition of 18 parties, led by the Nationalist Party BNP’s Khaleda Zia, had carried out 85 nationwide strikes and blockades that nearly brought the country to its knees. In December 2013, Zia announced that the opposition would boycott the January parliamentary elections, which she did not expect would be fair. The EU representative met with Zia and invited her to give up her boycott, take part in the elections and enter into a dialogue with the government, but in vain. Then the JP Party also joined the boycott. The government responded again by putting in the military. JP’s leader Ershad was placed under house arrest as early as December 4. Zia was placed under house arrest from December 26. At the request of the Supreme Electoral Commission, the military was deployed to maintain order in the period leading up to and after the election. It failed. On December 29, BNP called for a March for Democracy in protest of the government’s ban on demonstrations. GDP and the opposition clashed with counter-demonstrations by Awami and several were killed. In Gaibandha, opposition activists derailed a train and three were killed. On December 30, the opposition decided to launch an uninterrupted series of blockades of all roads, train lines and waterways in the country from January 1 in protest of the election. On January 3 and 4, opposition oppositionists burned 100 polling stations across the country. On the very day of the election on January 5, the election campaign was disrupted at 400 polling stations and another 100 burned down. 21 were killed. As a result of the extensive violence, turnout reached only 22%.