When the word Africa comes up, many people think of deserts, savannas and wild animals. The crises that are pervasive in the media in many African countries also shape our picture. However, this picture does not do justice to the continent. Africa is the second largest continent on earth with a size of more than 30 million square kilometers and more than a billion people. Estimates show that the population is divided into over 2,000 ethnic groups. In Africa we find not only a great cultural and religious diversity but also completely different types of landscape. The so-called “black continent” is actually a very colorful continent.
|Country||Public expenditure on education as a share of GDP (per cent)||Public expenditure on education as a share of the state budget (percent)|
|Algeria||4.3 (2008)||11.4 (2008)|
|Angola||3.4 (2010)||8.7 (2010)|
|Benin||4.0 (2018)||18.8 (2016)|
|Botswana||9.6 (2009)||20.5 (2009)|
|Burkina Faso||6.0 (2018)||18.0 (2015)|
|Burundi||5.0 (2018)||19.9 (2017)|
|central African Republic||1.1 (2011)||7.8 (2011)|
|Comoros||2.5 (2015)||15.3 (2015)|
|Djibouti||5.6 (2018)||12.3 (2010)|
|Egypt||3.8 (2008)||10.9 (2008)|
|Equatorial Guinea||2.2 (1998)||5.2 (1998)|
|Ivory Coast||4.4 (2018)||18.7 (2017)|
|Eritrea||2.1 (2006)||5.2 (2006)|
|Ethiopia||4.7 (2015)||27.1 (2015)|
|Gabon||2.7 (2014)||11.2 (2014)|
|Gambia||2.4 (2018)||10.4 (2016)|
|Ghana||4.0 (2018)||20.2 (2017)|
|Guinea||2.6 (2018)||14.4 (2017)|
|Guinea-Bissau||2.1 (2013)||16.2 (2013)|
|Cameroon||3.1 (2018)||16.4 (2017)|
|Cape Verde||5.2 (2017)||16.8 (2017)|
|Kenya||5.3 (2018)||16.9 (2017)|
|Congo-Brazzaville||3.6 (2018)||8.6 (2015)|
|Congo-Kinshasa||1.5 (2017)||10.8 (2017)|
|Lesotho||6.5 (2018)||24.7 (2008)|
|Liberia||2.6 (2018)||7.0 (2017)|
|Libya||2.3 (1999)||8.1 (1999)|
|Madagascar||3.2 (2018)||17.0 (2015)|
|Malawi||4.7 (2018)||14.3 (2017)|
|Mali||3.8 (2017)||18.2 (2015)|
|Morocco||5.3 (2009)||17.3 (2009)|
|Mauritania||2.6 (2016)||9.3 (2016)|
|Mauritius||4.8 (2018)||19.9 (2017)|
|Mozambique||5.6 (2018)||19.0 (2013)|
|Namibia||3.1 (2014)||7.6 (2014)|
|Niger||4.9 (2018)||16.6 (2017)|
|Rwanda||3.1 (2018)||11.1 (2017)|
|São Tomé & Príncipe||5.1 (2018)||0.0 (2017)|
|Senegal||4.7 (2018)||21.6 (2017)|
|Seychelles||4.4 (2016)||11.7 (2016)|
|Sierra Leone||7.1 (2018)||19.8 (2017)|
|Sudan||2.2 (2009)||10.8 (2009)|
|South Africa||6.2 (2018)||18.7 (2017)|
|South Sudan||1.0 (2017)||1.0 (2017)|
|Tanzania||3.7 (2018)||17.3 (2014)|
|Chad||2.2 (2018)||12.5 (2013)|
|Togo||5.4 (2018)||16.0 (2016)|
|Tunisia||6.6 (2015)||22.9 (2015)|
|Uganda||2.5 (2018)||12.1 (2017)|
|Zambia||4.7 (2018)||5.7 (2008)|
|Zimbabwe||4.6 (2018)||30.0 (2014)|
Africa – the colorful continent
Based on Countryaah, Africa can be divided into five regions. The largest desert on earth is located in North Africa: the Sahara. The North African coastal states like Tunisia or Morocco have wonderful beaches, lively cities and a rich cultural history. They are popular with vacationers from all over the world.
In the southwest of the Sahara is West Africa. There savannas and tropical rainforests connect to the dry desert areas. The Cape Verde Islands with their dream beaches and green mountains are among the most attractive countries in this region of Africa. Even Ghana offers numerous attractions, including tropical rain forests, picturesque coasts and native animals such as elephants, chimpanzees, lions and antelopes.
Central Africa, also called the “Heart of Africa”, is still largely undeveloped for tourism. Here is the second largest rainforest on earth. It is home to animals such as mountain gorillas and forest elephants.
Countries such as Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa are famous for their vast savannas and the wildlife that can be found there. There is also the impressive Kilimanjaro massif and huge inland lakes such as Lake Victoria.
The huge Kalahari Desert stretches across southern Africa. The southernmost country on the continent, South Africa, also has the greatest economic importance. Because of its multicultural population, it is also known as the “rainbow nation”. In addition to savannas, rainforests and mountains, the country has a 2,000-kilometer coastline with fantastic beaches and surf spots. According to AllCityPopulation, cities like Cape Town and Johannesburg are modern metropolises that offer a wide range of culture and combine a European standard of living with an incomparable, relaxed attitude to life. Both of them are major cities in Africa by population.
Literature of South Africa after 1960
In South Africa, non-white writers have also been in the shadow of whites since 1960, and several have banned writing or lived in exile. The zulu poems of Mazisi Kunene, linking intense natural images and cosmological vision, and Alex La Gumas and Lewis Nkosi’s descriptions of politics and racial hatred were thus suppressed in their homeland and had to be published in Europe and Nigeria. Modikwe Dikobe portrays urban slum and rural life, Sipho Sydney Sepamla and Mongane Wally Serote describe growing up and political anger in black townships, and Njabulo Ndebele is a leading short story writer and literary critic. Among female writers, Bessie Head occupiesa special position with strong psychological and historical texts on South Africa and Botswana. Among white writers, Nobel laureate Nadime Gordimer has helped to refine literary narrative technology, and together with André Brink, she has consistently provided the international public with insight into the abomination of apartheid. In Afrikaans, Breyten Breytenbach and Etienne van Heerden are innovative writers, while another Nobel laureate, the English- writing JM Coetzee, has marked himself as an in-depth late modernist with novels such as Waiting for the Barbarians (1980, then We Wait for the Barbarians, 1982) and Disgrace. (2000, da.Disgrace, so).
The importance of literature
It has been argued that literature in third world societies performs a special “national-allegorical” function. While African literature in the first years of independence contributed to ideologies of national identity and played a propagandistic role, it has since helped to promote pluralism, publicity and respect for individuality. The literature is of great importance to the democratization that is emerging as the second stage of decolonization in Africa. At the same time, literature has increasingly divided between works written, launched and rated as world literature aimed at an international audience and a more local production with broader appeal in the home community. Thus, the underdevelopment that plagues Africa economically, politically and educationally has also led to tensions in the field of literature,
North African literature, see Arabic literature, Maghrebian French-language literature and under individual countries.