The educational system in the UK is twofold. The
education system in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is
broadly similar, while in Scotland the system is different
and has its own laws and traditions.
In England and Wales, the state has long played a modest
role in the education system. In 1833, the government began
making annual contributions to voluntary organizations that
organized schools. In 1870, a school law made it a public
task to run primary schools, and England and Wales were
divided into school districts with their own school boards.
Both public and private schools were put under state
inspection. Compulsory schooling up to 13 years was adopted
and implemented in 1880. In 1890 school fees were lifted at
public primary schools. By a law in 1902, public
responsibility was extended to secondary schools. The School
Act of 1918 (Fisher Act) raised school duty to 14
years. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of United Kingdom.
School Act of 1944 (Education Act) laid the
foundation for the school system that is in force today. The
law stipulated that the public education system should be
organized in three successive steps, the primary, the
secondary and the higher education. The school duty was
extended to between 5 and 15 years, from 1972 to 16 years.
In the School Act of 2002 (Education Act), this
structure was replaced by four basic stages (key stages).
The idea of public school for all arose earlier in
Scotland than elsewhere in the United Kingdom. It dates back
to 1560, and in 1696 Parliament decided that there should be
a school of teachers in each parish. However, it took a long
time for the claim to be implemented, and then as a result
of the upheavals following the industrial revolution. The
School Act of 1872 transferred responsibility for the school
from religious to secular authorities, and a Scottish
Ministry of Education was established. The School Act of
1945 corresponds to the English Act of 1944.
The overall responsibility for education in the UK and
Northern Ireland lies with the UK Government. However,
education policy and education funding are currently
controlled mainly by the regional education authorities: the
Department for Education and Skills (DfES) in
England; Department of Education and Lifelong Learning
in Wales; Scottish Executive Education Department
(SEED) in Scotland and the Department of Education for
Northern Ireland (DENI) in Northern Ireland. Scotland
and Northern Ireland also have their own education laws.
Public schools are mainly funded through local education
authorities (LEAs), but some public schools
(grant maintained schools)is financed directly from the
education ministries. All educational institutions in the UK
and Northern Ireland have a high degree of self-government.
In 1988, a school reform was adopted in England and
Wales, which for the first time introduced national
curricula and national tests for different age groups. This
law was passed in the School Act of 1996. An inspector
system is to safeguard the quality of the school.
The first six school years consist of primary school
with key stage I for 5-7 years and key stage II
for 7-11 years. The secondary school consists
mostly of comprehensive schools, which offer a wide
range of upper secondary education, and where everyone comes
in regardless of their professional qualifications. However,
in some places there are still grammar schools,
where students are admitted after prior tests.
In addition to public schools, there are a significant
number of private schools at all levels, which make up over
7% of all pupils. They do not receive public support, but
are subject to public inspection. The best-known private
schools are the so-called public schools.
The university tradition was long dominated by Oxford and
Cambridge from the 1100s and 1200s respectively, each
consisting of autonomous colleges. With the
industrialization in the 19th century, the university sector
was otherwise built up, especially in the big cities. In the
post-war period, there was an increased need for higher
vocational education, which led to the establishment of
so-called polytechnics for education of, among
other things. technicians and teachers, but without research
activity. These were granted university status in 1992.
Higher education in the UK and Northern Ireland is now
offered by 90 universities and 60 other institutions (2006).
In one position stands Open University, established in 1969,
which offers distance education through formal education
without formal admission requirements.
There are 14 universities in Scotland. The oldest are the
University of St. Andrews (founded 1410), the University of
Glasgow (1451) and the University of Aberdeen (1494).
Northern Ireland has two universities, Queen's University
Belfast and University of Ulster, and Wales are all
universities gathered in the University of Wales with ia
departments in Cardiff and Glamorgan.