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School and education in the UK

The educational system in the UK is twofold. The education system in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is broadly similar, while in Scotland the system is different and has its own laws and traditions.

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History

In England and Wales, the state has long played a modest role in the education system. In 1833, the government began making annual contributions to voluntary organizations that organized schools. In 1870, a school law made it a public task to run primary schools, and England and Wales were divided into school districts with their own school boards. Both public and private schools were put under state inspection. Compulsory schooling up to 13 years was adopted and implemented in 1880. In 1890 school fees were lifted at public primary schools. By a law in 1902, public responsibility was extended to secondary schools. The School Act of 1918 (Fisher Act) raised school duty to 14 years. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of United Kingdom.

Study in United KingdomThe School Act of 1944 (Education Act) laid the foundation for the school system that is in force today. The law stipulated that the public education system should be organized in three successive steps, the primary, the secondary and the higher education. The school duty was extended to between 5 and 15 years, from 1972 to 16 years. In the School Act of 2002 (Education Act), this structure was replaced by four basic stages (key stages).

The idea of ​​public school for all arose earlier in Scotland than elsewhere in the United Kingdom. It dates back to 1560, and in 1696 Parliament decided that there should be a school of teachers in each parish. However, it took a long time for the claim to be implemented, and then as a result of the upheavals following the industrial revolution. The School Act of 1872 transferred responsibility for the school from religious to secular authorities, and a Scottish Ministry of Education was established. The School Act of 1945 corresponds to the English Act of 1944.

The overall responsibility for education in the UK and Northern Ireland lies with the UK Government. However, education policy and education funding are currently controlled mainly by the regional education authorities: the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) in England; Department of Education and Lifelong Learning in Wales; Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED) in Scotland and the Department of Education for Northern Ireland (DENI) in Northern Ireland. Scotland and Northern Ireland also have their own education laws. Public schools are mainly funded through local education authorities (LEAs), but some public schools (grant maintained schools)is financed directly from the education ministries. All educational institutions in the UK and Northern Ireland have a high degree of self-government.

In 1988, a school reform was adopted in England and Wales, which for the first time introduced national curricula and national tests for different age groups. This law was passed in the School Act of 1996. An inspector system is to safeguard the quality of the school.

Education system

The first six school years consist of primary school with key stage I for 5-7 years and key stage II for 7-11 years. The secondary school consists mostly of comprehensive schools, which offer a wide range of upper secondary education, and where everyone comes in regardless of their professional qualifications. However, in some places there are still grammar schools, where students are admitted after prior tests.

In addition to public schools, there are a significant number of private schools at all levels, which make up over 7% of all pupils. They do not receive public support, but are subject to public inspection. The best-known private schools are the so-called public schools.

The university tradition was long dominated by Oxford and Cambridge from the 1100s and 1200s respectively, each consisting of autonomous colleges. With the industrialization in the 19th century, the university sector was otherwise built up, especially in the big cities. In the post-war period, there was an increased need for higher vocational education, which led to the establishment of so-called polytechnics for education of, among other things. technicians and teachers, but without research activity. These were granted university status in 1992.

Higher education in the UK and Northern Ireland is now offered by 90 universities and 60 other institutions (2006). In one position stands Open University, established in 1969, which offers distance education through formal education without formal admission requirements.

There are 14 universities in Scotland. The oldest are the University of St. Andrews (founded 1410), the University of Glasgow (1451) and the University of Aberdeen (1494). Northern Ireland has two universities, Queen's University Belfast and University of Ulster, and Wales are all universities gathered in the University of Wales with ia departments in Cardiff and Glamorgan.

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