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School and education in Syria

Syria has compulsory school from the children are 6 to 15 years. In 2002, 98% of children attended compulsory school. It is a 3-year high school with a general and vocational field of study. The language of instruction is Arabic; English and French are the first foreign language. Syria has 4 universities: Damascus (founded 1903), Aleppo (1960), Latakia (1971), Homs (1979). According to UNESCO (2003), approx. 23% of the adult population is illiterate (10% of men, 36% of women). Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Syria.

Study in Syria

European interference

Among the relics left by the Crusaders in particular spoke of the strengthening of Christian communities in the region - especially the Maronites. They were used by the Europeans as a pretext for 17th century interference. When kediven of Egypt Mehmet Ali in 1831 conquered Syria, they brought heavy taxes and compulsory military service for a popular revolt, which both Muslims and Christians participated. The European powers used since the attacks on the Christian population as a pretext to intervene. That way, Ali's offensive slowed down, and Francewas given the "protection of Syrian Christians". The development culminated with the total withdrawal of the Egyptians in 1840, the re-introduction of Ottoman supremacy and acceptance by the Turkish Sultans of the establishment of Christian missions and schools paid for by the Europeans.

The Christian Maronite communities were located in the mountainous region between Damascus and Jerusalem, and in 1858 they broke with the ruling class and abolished the feudal tenure of the land. Their Muslim neighbors - especially the Drusians - decided to crush the movement before it spread. It came into conflict, culminating with the so-called "massacres" in June 1860. A month later, French troops landed in Beirut on the pretext of "protecting" the Christians. They forced the Turkish government to create a separate province - «Little Lebanon». The province was to be ruled by a Christian - appointed by the Sultan but approved by the European superpowers -, to have his own police force and within the province the abolition of feudal rights. In this way, a social conflict was transformed into a conflict of faith, and the Christian population of "Little Lebanon" took full precedence over the local Muslim population.

World War 1

When the Arab uprising broke out during World War I (see Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Iraq), the emir Faisal was appointed king of Syria, without knowing the British-French plans expressed in the Sykes-Picot agreement, after which it fertile crescent should be divided as follows: France should have control over Syria and Lebanon, while England should have control over Palestine (including Jordan) as well as Iraq.

In 1920 France occupied the country militarily and forced Faisal to retire. Two months later, Syria was divided into 5 states: Greater Lebanon - in the further areas was added to the province of «Little Lebanon», Damascus, Alepo, Djabal Druzay and Alawis (Latakia). The four latter joined in 1924 again.

Until 1932, the development was characterized by some calm, but this year the president and parliament were elected. However, France had made it clear that it would not accept greater internal autonomy. It led to clashes, which only ceased in 1936, when the French signed an agreement in which they recognized the just in Syrian demands, the most important of which was reunification with Lebanon. However, the French government never ratified the agreement, which triggered further agitation. It culminated in 1939 when the Syrian president resigned, and the French administration suspended the 1930 constitution in Syria and Lebanon.

WW2

In 1941, forces from free France and England occupied the area to abolish cooperation with Nazism. Two years later, Chikri Al-Quwatli was elected president of Syria and Bechara Al-Kuri in Lebanon, but when the latter made proposals to remove the references to the French mandate in the area, the French forces captured him and his government. In both states, the arrest triggered a clash and British pressure on the French army was added. The conflict was only resolved when the United Nations in March 1946 ordered the European troops out of the area, thus ending the French mandate. The withdrawal of the foreign forces was completed in 47. Syrian forces joined 48 together with forces from other Arab countries in the fight against the establishment of the State of Israel.

 

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