In 1991, extensive reforms were decided on by both the
school and university system. Previously, the school
structure of the school was 6 + 3 + 3 academic years with 7
years as the age of entry. This was changed to 8 years of
primary school with 6 years of age. The secondary school was
three years old.
In 2006, just over half of the children were estimated to
attend school, but in recent years major investments have
been made in education and in 2009 UNESCO estimated that 85%
of the children in the current school year started primary
school. However, the differences in schooling are very large
between city and countryside and between boys and girls.
Directed investments have been made for a few years now on
girls and nomadic groups. Although the schooling is
officially free of charge, there are often costs for school
supplies, uniforms and in some cases teacher salaries. Check
topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Sudan.
The lack of educated teachers has long been a major
problem; those who have received training for various
professions have largely been employed in the oil-rich Arab
countries. Literacy in 2009 was estimated at 70% (80% for
men and 61% for women).
There are several universities in Sudan, of which the
University of Khartoum is the most significant.
As the north-south peace process progressed, in January
2004, government forces launched an offensive in Darfur
province in the west against the Sudanese Liberation
Movement Army - the former Darfur Liberation Movement.
Sudan's Liberation Movement had been formed the year
before, in response to the systematic attacks in the Darfur
region by Arab nomads - the so-called Janjawid militias. The
nomads were pushed to the west as a result of
desertification in the Sahel area of Sudan, and they
encountered Darfur along with the resident population.
According to Human Rights Watch reports, the Janjawid
militias were already supported by the Central Government
with weapons, training and other equipment before 2003. It
carried out the politics of the burnt earth and carried out
ethnic cleansing where it penetrated. In 2004, the assaults
had killed 10,000 people, destroyed 2,300 villages and
settlements and driven $ 1 million. on the run. They sought
protection around the cities of Sudan, or crossed the border
to Chad in an attempt to escape torture, rape and theft
carried out in complete lawlessness. The World Organization
Against Torture criticized the use of torture against
children in Darfur the same year.
In March 2004, al-Bashir again ordered Turabi and his
political and military supporters arrested. In April, the UN
Commission on Human Rights refused to adopt sanctions
against the Government of Sudan. Still, the World Food
Program (WFP) found that 3 million Sudanese now suffered
from hunger and characterized the situation as a
In May, Chad's army was attacked across the border by
regular Sudanese forces. Some political observers stated
that it was possible that an alliance was formed against the
government among rebel groups in Nuba, Abyei, the Blue Nile
and Darfur, and that the clashes could spread to larger
parts of Sudan.
In June, US Secretary of State Colin Powell visited Sudan
and tried to put pressure on the government to stop it from
attacking the civilian population in Darfur. At the same
time, the United States pointed out that the UN Security
Council could adopt sanctions if the violence continued. UN
Secretary-General Kofi Annan declared that if the Government
of Sudan could not protect the people of Darfur, then the
international community would have to respond. The UN
characterized the situation as the world's most serious
The UN points to the murders and the massive displacement
of civilians into a "conscious campaign for ethnic
cleansing". The Sudanese government continued its refusal to
support the Arab militias attacking the villages. At the
same time, the humanitarian organizations criticized the
government for obstructing the distribution of food and
medicine. Sudanese Foreign Minister Mustafá Ismail admitted
there was a "problem" in Darfur, but he considered it
exaggerated, and he promised his government would take a
number of steps to resolve the problem, even before the end
of Powell's visit.