Apart from a progressive period before the Franco regime,
the education system in Spain until the 1970s was
characterized by strong conservatism and centralization
without any major consideration for ethnic differences.
However, the need for modernization of the economy at large
forced 1970 reform (LGE), which broadened educational
opportunities. After 8-year primary school, either a 3-year
secondary school (BUP) followed, leading to a bachelor's
degree, the equivalent of a Swedish student degree, or
a vocational school with 2-year stages. The former had a
one-year extension (COU), which gave eligibility for
admission to university. The primary school's first five
grades were general and focused on literacy, while the last
three were more subject-oriented. The universities were, and
are, mainly of two kinds, both those who announce 3-year
undergraduate education and partly those who also have
research-linked advanced education for master's and doctoral
degrees with an additional 2 + 2 years. According to Abbreviationfinder,
Spain is a country located in Europe.
The conditions for the education system have changed
significantly since 1970, politically and economically. In
1978, the country was given a new constitution, which
emphasizes everyone's right to education. The rapid
urbanization and entry into the EC have had strong
repercussions. The González government tried to speed up
modernization and sought to qualitatively capture the rest
of Europe. The 1983 university reform gave the regions and
the individual universities greater powers and formed part
of the already decentralized process. The 1985 General
Education Act (LODE) gave everyone the right to choose
education freely within the framework of an integrated
network of state and private schools; it also introduced
increased local influence over the governance of schools.
The 1990 General Education Act (LOGSE) regulated structure
and curricula and introduced 10-year compulsory schooling;
The school structure according to LOGSE consists of
3-year preschool, 6-year primary school, 4-year compulsory
secondary school and a post-compulsory 2-year school which
prepares for university. The primary school consists of
three 2-year stages with teaching mainly by class teachers,
but not in foreign languages, which are already introduced
in year 3. In the compulsory secondary school, the subject
choice covers the first year 10% of the time and the fourth
year 35%. Upon departure, you will receive either a
certificate, Graduado Escolar, which entitles you
to enter the post-compulsory school, or a Certificate de
Escolaridad for vocational education. Everyone who has
completed 10-year compulsory school receives a certificate
called Graduado en Educación Secundaria. After the
two years in post-compulsory school, four kinds of
bachillerato can be taken: natural sciences,
humanities, social sciences and technical.
Madrid - history
According to an Arab historian from the 1200's. Madrid was founded in the
800-t., but not until the 900-t. the city is mentioned under its Arabic name, Majrít.
Madrid was conquered in 931 by the Christian king of León, but remained in
the Middle Ages through a small town, populated by Christians, Jews and
Moors. It was protected by a castle, La Almudena, where the royal
palace was later built.
Christians and Moors had alternate dominions, but under Alfonso VIII the city
gained its own jurisdiction (Fuero Real), and in 1477 the "Catholic royal
couple", Ferdinand and Isabella, could enter Madrid, where the later regent
Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros also became appointed Archbishop of Toledo.
In 1513, Madrid had approx. 15,000 inhabitants and was of such importance
that the peace treaty in 1526 between Charles 5. and Frans 1. of France took
place here. The real capital was Madrid first under Philip II. in 1561. The
city then grew strongly but unplanned, and most of the forests that had
surrounded Madrid were felled and used for construction and fuel.
At the same time, Madrid became the center of Spain's literary and artistic
golden age. The authors Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, Francisco de
Quevedo and Calderón as well as the painters Velázquez and Claudio Coello were
born in Madrid and lived there.
The architecture of the time was inspired by Philip II's mighty monastery, El
Escorial (1563-84). In 1601, Philip II moved his court to Valladolid, but
returned to Madrid in 1606. Under Philip IV, the current Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, the Palacio de Santa Cruz, the town hall and the church of San Isidro
el Real were built. In the late 1600's, flourished especially theatrical life,
which both the court and the citizens showed an unprecedented interest.
Under Philip 5, who ruled in the first half of the 1700's, as the first
Spanish king of the genus Bourbon, the royal palace, the national library and
the royal academies were built for resp. language, history and art. Under his
successor, Charles III, nicknamed "the best mayor of Madrid", the city grew to
160,000 inhabitants, and parks, a botanical garden, an astronomical observatory,
Cibeles Square with a fountain, and the Church of San Francisco el Grande were
built during the same period..
In 1808, Madrid was occupied by Napoleon I's troops, and the uprising of the
citizens was bloodily defeated on 2/5. After the expulsion of the French,
Fernando VII was able to return to Madrid as king in 1814. Throughout the
1800's. Madrid, like the rest of Spain, was marked by violent social unrest and
In 1878, when Madrid had approx. 500,000 inhabitants, electricity and
electric trams were introduced, and in 1919 the city's metro was inaugurated.
During the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39, Madrid was the Republican
capital. It was bombed several times from the air and was subjected to a
prolonged siege by the nationalists until it had to surrender on 28.3.1939.