In Somalia the education follows a 6-2-4 system, where
the primary school lasts for 6 years, the secondary school
for 2 years and the secondary school for 4 years. According
to UNESCO, approx. 62% of the adult population became
illiterate in 2001 (50% of men, 75% of women). Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Somalia.
In 1972, all education in Somalia was nationalized and
Somali was introduced as a language of instruction.
Officially there is compulsory schooling for 8 years (6-14
years), but in 2002 only approx. 16% of children in primary
school. The high school is 4 years old. The entire school
system collapsed in 1991.
More than 100 died in June 2004 in connection with
fighting between ethnic militias in the town of Bula Hawo in
southern Somalia. Two factions of Somalia's National Front
(SNT) clashed over control of the city. Bula Hawo is a hub
of trade between Mogadishu, Kenya and Ethiopia. The fighting
took place near the border and also affected the city of
Mandera in Kenya, where 7 lost their lives. The Kenyan
government decided to detain suspects in the area and sent
police there to prevent militia infiltration. Still,
hundreds of Somalis searched across the border to seek
protection in neighboring countries.
That same month, Britain decided to extradite 6 Somalis
who had sought asylum because of the war. Amnesty
International criticized the move, asked for an explanation
and declared that it was an undrafted change in UK foreign
policy. The organization stated that the government's claim
that the refugees did not run the risk of returning to
Somalia was not realistic. Somalia is the country that
delivers the most asylum applications to the UK. Only 4,500
In July 2004, about 150 Somalis met in Mogadishu to
discuss the country's rebuilding after 10 years of civil war
and complete lack of legal community. The interviews
included academics, business people from different parts of
the country as well as Somalis from abroad. But without
public administration, without police forces and without
transport, there were poor conditions for the unfolding of
these negotiations. At the same time, negotiations in Kenya
continued, leading to the formation of a government by the
end of July.
It was not only Amnesty who considered the situation very
difficult as a result of new fighting between the warring
warlords. The same was true of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Over 1½ million Somalis
have been displaced or exiled since the beginning of the
On December 26, 2004, Somalia was the country on the
African continent most affected by the tsunami that
particularly affected Southeast Asia. The worst affected
area was Puntlania, where at least 200 died and 30,000
became homeless. Many wells were destroyed.
At least 10 were killed and many others injured when a
bomb exploded in Mogadishu when Ghedi held a conference in
May 2005. a month later, the government began returning from
its exile in Kenya, although it has not yet been decided
where it should seat.
A new attack against Ghedi took place in November when
his caravan was attacked with weapons in Mogadishu. The
prime minister escaped, but 6 were killed.
More than a year after it was formed in Kenya, Parliament
finally met on Somali territory - namely in February in the
city of Baidoa. 205 of the 275 MPs participated, but many
warlords allied with Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan who were
dissatisfied with President Yusuf did not participate. After
all, the meeting in Baidoa became possible after the two
leaders had met in Yemen the month before.
The militia of the Islamic courts took control of
Mogadishu in June 2006. It was the strongest and most
popular movement in the country. The total 11 independent
Islamic courts in the capital, each fighting for the
introduction of Islamic law as a means to deal with
pornography and a number of common crimes in the capital's