Until the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the education
system was highly centralized. The school law adopted by
Parliament in 1992 has meant that the federal states of the
Russian Federation have become virtually sovereign in terms
of the objectives and content of the school's teaching.
Instead of the Soviet Union's common curricula and teaching
materials, the states and the individual schools themselves
must decide the form of teaching. An alternative sector has
gradually been formed at the secondary stage with
independent university preparatory colleges and luces with a
humanistic or natural sciences orientation. Decentralization
is promoted by the Russian Federation's ethnic and
With the school reform in 1984, the school starting age
was reduced from 7 to 6 years, which met strong resistance.
Parents can decide the age of entry for their children.
After the preschool follows the primary stage, which
comprises 4 grades. The secondary stage previously included
11 first-year courses, to which the first four first-year
courses were in the technical sense. In the 1992 School Act,
this was reduced to 9, which was prescribed as the mandatory
minimum for "basic secondary school". A separate primary
school of 4-5 years has traditionally only existed in more
or less isolated villages. From 15 to 18 years, students can
either take university preparatory courses or engage in pure
vocational education. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Russia.
The higher education is placed at universities, so-called
institutes or academies. University studies are usually
conducted for 5 years. Admission takes place after entrance
exam. The number of part-time students at secondary school
level has decreased to about 10% of students. Significantly
more, 40%, undertook evening studies at the universities or
correspondence studies in 1992. There is an extensive
popular education activity with so-called folk universities,
study circles and lectures. Through the decentralization,
the reorganized Academy of Educational Sciences has lost a
lot of its influence, e.g. over the design of the curricula
and standardized tests, and is mainly devoted to research.