The school in Poland is divided into 6-year primary
school, 3-year secondary school and 3-year high school. In
1991, major changes were made to the education system as
part of the political and economic upheaval in the country.
Communist educational content was removed and new foreign
languages introduced. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Poland.
The government has proposed legislation to introduce
compulsory education for all children from the age of 6. The
bill, which is being debated in parliament in the autumn of
2013, means that on September 1, 2014, compulsory education
will be required for children born in 2007 and children born
in the first half of 2008. On September 1, 2015, this shall
apply to children born in the second half of 2008 and
children born. in 2009. In 1999, 9 years of compulsory
primary education were introduced for all children and young
people between the ages of 7 and 16. However, the youth is
obliged to continue with upper secondary education until
they reach the age of 18. In the 2009/10 school year, 60% of
young people started at theoretical 3-year high school and
30% at 4-year vocational high school. 10% of the youth
started with a shorter vocational education. In 1989,
private schools were allowed, with 9.5% of pupils attending
Poland has a well-developed education system at
university and college level. In total, there are 470 (2012)
public and private universities/colleges with almost two
million students. Higher education at public universities
and colleges is free. The Jagellonian University of Kraków
was founded in 1364 and is one of the oldest in Europe. The
University of Warsaw was founded in 1816.
1918 New Polish State
With the ceasefire, the new Polish state was a reality.
Marshal Pilsudski returned to Warsaw in triumph and became a
main figure in the new Poland. Initially, he had to
compromise with the supporters of a social revolution, and
accepted that the first government was socially dominated.
Workers 'and Soldiers' Councils possessed much of the
physical power in the first months after the end of the war.
But soon the radical forces were forced back. The Western
powers needed Poland as a bulwark against the Soviet Union.
They played on the traditional patriotic, anti-Russian
sentiments, and as early as 1919 the new Poland was a
bourgeois and strongly nationally-influenced republic.
Poland came to war with the Soviet Union, but the bourgeois
state was saved by French aid.
At the conclusion of the peace, Poland was assigned large
tracts of land in the East, where the majority were of
Ukrainian and Belarusian descent. However, the Baltic States
with the 1921 State Peace Agreement gained their
independence. To the west, large German-speaking groups were
placed under Poland. The conflict with the national
minorities and a Jewish population of almost 10% played a
major role in the interwar period.
In 1921, the new state was given a liberal parliamentary
constitution, but the struggle between the various political
groups became fierce, and no stable government was created
until Pilsudski in 1926 carried out a coup d'etat. The
Prorussian communists were constantly persecuted as an
anti-national party, and the radical left continued to be
divided and relatively weak until World War II. The Polish
Communist Party had long been relatively independent of
Moscow, which aroused Stalin's anger. As the only party, it
was dissolved by the Comintern in 1938. The leaders who had
fled to the Soviet Union were killed or deported.
After Pilsudski's death in 1935, the Warsaw regime gained
an increasingly fascist feel. Foreign policy showed that
Poland used the Munich settlement to deprive Czechoslovakia
of the Teschen area. For a while, Warsaw tried to compromise
with Hitler-Germany, but after the fall of Czechoslovakia it
quickly became clear that Poland was at the top of Hitler's
attack targets. Berlin wanted Gdansk (Danzig) - which in the
interwar period was a free state under the control of the
League of Nations - as well as a corridor for East Prussia.
The government now sought support from the Western powers,
but wanted no contact with Moscow, which concluded a
non-assault pact with Hitler, a week before the war broke
Poland's prehistory includes the period from the last
Middle Ages (around 125,000 years ago) to the younger Iron
The oldest prehistoric finds from the area that today
make up Poland date from the beginning of the last Middle
Ages. They include not only objects of flint, but also
considerable quantities of implements in the horns and bones
as well as bones of the animals that humans hunt. Also from
the Mesolithic period the bulk of the finds are from
settlements, but from Janisławice in central Poland, about
midway between Kalisz and Wrocław, a well-preserved burial
ground is known. The customer culture is closely related to
the Maglemose culture in Denmark.
The first traces of a Neolithic economy emerged from the
fifth millennium BCE. Both knowledge of arable and livestock
farming and pottery production have southeastern origins. It
is primarily the band ceramic cultures that have had a
strong influence. In Northern Poland, the hopper culture
developed. It is particularly characterized by large
megalithic tombs. In the north, there are also finds from
comb and pit ceramic cultural groups that have essentially
lived by hunting, fishing and sinking, but who had sharpened
stone tools and who were able to produce pottery.
Towards the end of the Neolithic period several local
variants of snor ceramic groups appeared. Western European
influence is represented by the bell cup culture.
The Bronze Age
Copper has been used for jewelry and weapons from the
second half of the 4th millennium BCE. The Bronze Age
(approximately 1700-650 BCE) can be divided into two main
sections. In the older Bronze Age, it is only in Śląsk
(Silesia) and in the southeastern parts of the country that
a "true Bronze Age culture" - represented by the Aunjetitz
culture - can be traced. Other regional cultural groups have
existed. Common to all of them is that bronze has only been
First from around 1200 BCE. a uniform material culture
(the Lausitz culture) can be demonstrated throughout the
country. People have lived in villages that may have
consisted of up to 100 houses. The acquisition has been
based on arable and February crops, and specialized
craftsmen have been employed. More than 100 such villages
have been identified in Poland. The dead were burned and
buried in urns. The entire burial ground with such urn
burials has been found.
The iron age
In the northern part of the country came a new element in
the Iron Age, which stands out among other things by its own
tomb and clay vessels, which because of its shape are called
facial urns. The centuries before our era were characterized
by Celtic culture, with a developed agriculture. The turning
mill was known, as was the turntable for the production of,
among other things, clay vessels. In Roman times there have
been strong social divisions. The upper social stratum is
represented by so-called "first graves". In general, Roman
times were very rich, and many Roman imports were found, as
well as large deposits of Roman silver coins.
During the Iron Age large quantities of iron ore were
mined in mines. Up to 18 meters of deep shafts are
registered in the mountains. In addition, iron ore was
mined. Remains have been found after thousands of shaft
furnaces where the iron making itself has taken place.