Until 1991, when the area belonged to Yugoslavia, the
education system was mainly focused on science subjects and
in preparation for the labor market. After the country's
independence, education was substantially reformed. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Macedonia.
Today, the education system includes preschool (up to six
years of age), primary school (grades 1-9), upper secondary
education (three to four years) or vocational education (two
to four years) and higher education. Grades 1–9 are
compulsory. After primary school, young people can choose
general upper secondary education, vocational education or
13 percent of pupils in primary and secondary school
attend private schools. Northern Macedonia has joined the
Bologna principles. This means that higher education is
divided into three levels: basic education (three years),
master's program (one to two years) and postgraduate
education (three to four years). In 2015, 65,000 students
attended higher education. 55 percent of them were women and
45 percent were men.
In the last months of 1999 and the first of 2000, the
Albanian parties demanded greater support for the refugees
and the areas predominantly inhabited by Albanian
descendants. The situation was nearing a decline in the
government. Relations between the two ethnic groups
continued to deteriorate, and in March 2001
Macedonian-Albanian partisans initiated actions against the
Macedonian state from the border with Kosova.
In March 2001, an armed uprising broke out demanding
greater rights for the Albanian minority. The uprising sent
100,000 on the run and caused the Albanian National
Liberation Army to occupy several areas of the country. The
violence was only halted in August after foreign
intervention. Abroad, the rebels demanded that the Albanian
minority's rights be recognized.
Following delays and several ceasefire violations, in
November Parliament passed a series of amendments to the
Constitution giving greater rights to Albanians. The
Constitution no longer talks about the "Albanian minority"
but about the Albanians "living within the territory of
Macedonia". Albanian is now official language - next to
Macedonian - and public authorities - especially the police
- must create positions for Albanians.
A Human Rights Watch report documented violations of
human rights by both parties, and although the peace treaty
concluded an amnesty and immunity agreement, the
organization recommended that those responsible for the
worst violations be prosecuted by the authorities.
At the beginning of 2002, the international community
decided to allocate DKK 500 million. Euro for reconstruction
and economic reform in the country. It was twice the amount
originally discussed, and was a recognition of the stability
already achieved despite the 6-month armed confrontation.
On September 15, 2002, international observers
participated in a monitoring mission in connection with the
IPB. the first parliamentary election after the uprising in
the northwest the year before. The Social Democracy under
the leadership of Branko Crvenkovski had until then been in
opposition, but won the election by 40% of the vote, while
Ljubco Georgievski's Nationalist Party (VMRO) got only 24%.
President Boris Trajkovski invited the winner Crvenkovski to
form a new coalition government. This had already served as
prime minister in 1992-98. Over half of Albanians voted for
the Democratic Union for Integration, led by former Albanian
rebel leader Ali Ahmeti. The Union was the political
successor to the National Liberation Army.
In 2003, Amnesty International criticized the continuing
assaults and ill-treatment of the Albanian population by, in
particular, the "Lions" - a special ethnic clean police unit
formed by the Interior Ministry in the wake of the
Liberation Army uprising.
In February 2004, President Trajkovksi died in a plane
crash en route to a conference in Mostar. Bosnian TV accused
NATO of being behind the accident. He was temporarily
replaced on the post by the President of Parliament, Ljubvo