Myanmar officially has a compulsory 5-year primary school
from the age of five. Then follows 4-year high school and
2-year high school.
About. 83% of children start in primary school, and 60%
of them complete. In secondary school, vocational education
is emphasized. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Myanmar.
There are 107 higher education institutions, of which 51
are universities. The higher education institutions have
been closed for long periods due to political turmoil in the
According to UNESCO's 2001 calculations, the proportion
of illiteracy in the adult population is approx. 15%.
On August 1, 1943, the Japanese gave the country its
independence and appointed Dr. Ba Maw as head of state. The
army was placed under Ne Wins command, but disputes quickly
erupted between the Japanese and the socialist faction among
the "30 comrades." On March 27, 1945, the BIA declared war
on Japan and was recognized by the British as Burma's
Patriotic Army. On May 30, they again marched victoriously
into Rangoon, but this time by the English. Aung San
organized a transitional government and in 1947 a
constitution was drafted. On June 19, Aung San and several
of his staff were killed by a military unit in the palace. U
Now assumed the post of Prime Minister, and on January 4,
1948, the country declared itself independent.
The country's new government was initially attacked
militarily from several fronts: the rebellion among ethnic
minorities, the presence of Chinese Kuomintang forces in the
country involved in drug trafficking, and the armed struggle
of Aung San's army. It had been renamed the Organization of
the People's Volunteers and attached to the Communist Party.
On May 2, 1962, General Ne Win conducted a coup against U
Nu, which had won the election in 1960. Ne Win nationalized
the banks, the rice industry (which was the source of 70% of
the country's currency revenue) and the trade that was
predominantly in Indian hands.
In 1972, a new constitution ruled that the ruling Burma
Socialist Program Party (BSPP) was the country's only legal
The Ne Win regime came into ever deeper crisis following
the outbreak of the world crisis in 1973, and the opposition
strongly criticized "Burmese socialism". In 1979, the
country withdrew from the Alliance Free Movement. In 81, the
National Congress nominated San Yu for Ne Wins successor.
Win resigned from the post, but remained chairman of the
party, thus retaining his control over the country.
In 1987, the increasingly serious socio-economic crisis
led to public protests and demands for democracy. In August,
Ne Win admitted there were flaws in the previous 25 years of
economic policy. A BSPP congress appointed Sein Lwin as head
of state, triggering a wave of protests in which hundreds of
Buddhist monks and students died in the streets. Just 17
days after joining, Lwin was forced to resign. His successor
Maung Maung liberalized the regime.
The opposition was now preparing for the elections held
in May 1990. The government changed its name to Union
Myanmar and abolished the term "socialist". The name Burma
corresponded only to the country's largest ethnic
The National Democracy League (NLD) achieved a crushing
victory with 80% of the vote, while the ruling National
Unity Party (the former BSPP) only got 10 out of the 485
seats in parliament. However, the government refused to
acknowledge the election result, banned opposition
activities, imprisoned or banished its leaders, and severely
cracked down on any demonstration.
In July 1989, NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyi - daughter of
heroic anti-colonial hero Aung San - was sentenced to house
arrest and interrupted communications to the outside world.
She received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991.
The opposition now reorganized on the basis of an
agreement between students, Buddhist monks and a number of
minorities. In March 1992, the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) condemned the massacres
against ethnic minorities. All opposition parties were
dissolved and declared illegal.
In April, General Than Swe took power. He released 200
dissidents and allowed the reopening of 31 universities and
schools. At the same time, Myanmar rejoined the Alliance
Free Countries movement. In September, the state of war was
abolished, but Amnesty International continued to report
torture in the country.
With a view to drafting a new constitution, the military
regime in January 1993 instituted a National Convention. At
the end of the year, there were 1,550 political prisoners in
the country, according to Amnesty.