There is a 9-year compulsory school for children between
6 and 15 years. In 2001, 88% of the relevant age group
attended primary school. The high school is 6 years old (3 +
3). In 2001, 30% of the age group went to high school.
Arabic is the language of instruction. French, English and
Spanish are the most common foreign languages. The country
has 11 universities and several specialized colleges and
grandes ecoles. According to UNESCO, 58% of the adult
population were illiterate in 2001 (55% of men, 60% of
women). Morocco is said to have the world's oldest
university, the Islamic University of al-Qarawiyin in Fès,
founded 859, reorganized in 1963. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Morocco.
The United Nations International Office for the Control of
Drugs has criticized the fact that many farmers in countries
such as Morocco have started growing opium poppies and coca,
which are raw materials for the production of heroin and
The Sahara rapprochement between Algeria and Morocco
opened the door to a negotiated settlement of the conflict
based on a UN-led referendum in which Western Sahara's
people had to choose between independence or inclusion in
Morocco. But the Moroccan government has since delayed the
process in confidence in the final collapse of the
liberation movement Polisario.
Torture and devastation are commonplace for not only the
Saharui people but also for the Moroccan population. Nubier
Amauí, secretary general of the Democratic Workers'
Federation, was sentenced to 2 years in prison for
defamation by the Moroccan government. He was released
several months later after the opposition victory in
parliament. In 1993, the Moroccan human rights organization
reported the existence of 750 political prisoners.
In August 1992, King Hassan replaced Prime Minister
Azedine Laraki's government and appointed a new leader led
by Mohamed Karim Lamrani, who was head of government in the
period 1971-83. The government printed a referendum on a new
constitution that gave increased powers to parliament. In
any case, the king has the right to appoint the prime
In the first election following the constitutional
amendment in June 1993, the opposition won 99 of the 222
seats against the 74 party of the ruling party. Two months
later in Casablanca, King Hassan in spectacular form
inaugurated one of the world's largest mosques. It had cost
536 million. dollars to build.
Despite the constitutional change, the king's political
influence was still enormous, and in May 1994 he appointed
one of his family members to Prime Minister, Abd al-Latif
Filali. In August, the King made a surprising call for "the
integration of the Berber language and culture into national
The country's economic situation deteriorated abruptly in
1995, when rainfall did not reduce the harvest to one-sixth
of what it was the year before. Gross domestic product,
which had grown by 12% in 1994, fell 4% in 95. After
difficult negotiations, Morocco and the EU signed a new
cooperation agreement in November.
The government announced in early 1996 that it would put
a number of reforms to the constitution into a referendum.
The change was basically to form a legislative two-chamber
system and was adopted in September. The king retains the
right to dissolve the chambers. The privatizations continued
with the sale of some public companies.
In September 1997, Morocco and Polisario signed an
agreement to revive the Western Sahara peace plan, exchange
of prisoners, release of political detainees, permit
refugees to return and accommodation of the troops.
Furthermore, the agreement provided for a referendum on the
future of Western Sahara - self-determination or
incorporation into Morocco.
In the November 1997 elections, a coalition consisting of
4 opposition parties won 102 of Parliament's 325 seats. The
coalition included The Socialist Union of the Popular Forces
(USFP), which accounted for 57 seats and the Independence
Party with 32. Right-wing Alliance Wifaq supporting the
government got 100, including the Constitutional Union (UC)
with 50. The government's central alliance partners got 97
seats, the National Union of Independents with 46. This
gave the government broad parliamentary support.