The compulsory schooling is 11 years and another school
year is being established. Basic education and vocational
education are state, but there are also some private
vocational schools. Higher secondary education is provided
at state or private schools. In addition, some young people
study abroad, mainly in the Russian Federation. The
country's only university and its technical college, both in
Ulaanbaatar, have branches in the main cities in the
different regions. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Mongolia.
Already during the communist era great efforts were made
to increase literacy. This was facilitated by the growing
number of shepherd families living in places where there
were schools. In 1995, 83% of the population over the age of
15 was literate. By 2000, the proportion had grown to close
It took China almost a century to conquer Outer Mongolia,
and therefore the two regions were marked by different
developments. Inner Mongolia became integral to China and
the jealousy of the people's interest in preserving its
power in the south led to the oyrat people unable to reunite
This was the last period of great wars between the
Mongols and ended in general dissolution between the tribes.
Several groups of sheaves remained in the south, a few
chahars settled in Sinkiang and oyrat spread in several
directions - even into Zar Russia.
During the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05, both armies
used Mongol soldiers and auxiliary troops. From the
Japanese's point of view, a rebirth of Mongol nationalism
could weaken both Russia and China. At the end of the war,
Russia secretly recognized Inner Mongolia as the Japanese
sphere of influence.
At the outbreak of the Chinese Revolution in 1911,
widespread dissatisfaction existed in Mongolia. Until then,
the area alone had been considered a conflict area between
Russia and Japan, but the dissatisfaction of the Mongols had
a social and political basis and was directed at the
Manchurians and the local government.
Under the leadership of their Buddhist leader, the
Mongols declared themselves independent from China and
sought support from Russia, which, however, due to the
secret agreements with Japan and England could no longer go
to an "autonomy". After difficult negotiations, Outer
Mongolia was granted this status.
This situation continued until the Russian Revolution in
1917. China sent an army unit into Outer Mongolia and forced
the Mongols to sign a declaration asking for support from
Beijing. But the region was subsequently invaded by Zarist
troops on retreat. They threw out the Chinese and treated
the Mongols hard.
Due to the treachery of the traditional leaders, their
failure to deal with the Chinese invasion and the invasions
of the Russian "white armies", a group of revolutionary
Mongols requested support from the Bolsheviks, and in July
1921 the capital Urga was taken by a joint Mongol-Russian
This is usually regarded as the prelude to the republic,
although a monarchy first introduced by the Living Buddha,
which, however, had only the authority to carry out the laws
of the new regime. The religious leader died in 1924, and by
extension, the People's Republic of Mongolia was proclaimed.
The Revolutionary People's Party consisted of
conservative and revolutionary nationalists. It wavered
between Beijing and Moscow until Chiang Kai-shek had crushed
the Chinese revolution. From this point on, it came under
the ever stronger influence of the Soviet Union, which was
then led by Josef Stalin.
The new republic proclaimed the woman's right to vote -
in line with the other revolutions of the period. Mongolia
was still a distinctly feudal society, and the work of
enforcing socialism exceeded the assaults made in other