Until the late 1980s, Moldova's education system was an
integral part of the Soviet system. During 1990 and 1991
major educational reforms were undertaken with the
modernization and avideologization of curricula and the
literary curriculum. The Moldovsk national language has
replaced Russian as the dominant language of instruction.
The compulsory compulsory school lasts for 11 years from the
age of 6 children. Four-year primary school is followed by a
7-year high school (5 + 2). About. 78% of children attend
primary school, approx. 68% take higher education. In 2001,
there were 49 universities, of which 35 were private.
Mikhail Gorbachov came to power as secretary-general of the
Soviet Union Communist Party in 1985. With his openness
policy - perestroika - political and ethnic
problems quickly emerged in Moldova. From 1988, the local
Democratic movement in support of Perestroika began
demanding that the Latin alphabet be reintroduced into the
Moldavian written language. The Moldovan nationalists began
demanding that the privileges of Russian immigrants be
abolished or overtly sent home. In July 1989, it was avoided
with distress that violent clashes between nationalists and
Russians constituted 14.2% of the population of the
republic. In August, 300,000 Moldavians in Kishineu
demonstrated in favor of Moldova's independence - with
Romanian flags at the head.
On November 10, 1989, Parliament passed the Law on the
Official Language in a climate of strong tension. The
Russian-speaking workers now opposed the nationalists, and
80,000 workers went on strike. At the same time, the
separatist tendencies intensified in Dniéster - where the
proportion of Russians is high - and in Gagasia. The
Language Act made Moldavian the official language in
politics, economics, the social sector and cultural life.
Russian was referred to the mass media.
On August 27, 1991, the Moldovan government declared
itself independent of the Soviet Union. A month later,
Dniéster and Gagasia declared themselves independent
republics in protest against Moldova's independence and
association with Romania.
Following the failed coup d'état against Gorbachov in
Moscow in August 1991, the Moldovan government detained the
leaders of the local separatist movements. In December, the
first presidential election was held, with Mircea Snégur
elected president. A few days later, there were clashes that
cost 13 lives - among Moldovan soldiers and Russian speakers
in the Dniéster region. On March 2, 1992, Moldova was
formally admitted as a member of the UN. When it appeared
impossible to reach a peace agreement and as the fighting
continued in Dniéster, on March 16, President Snégur
introduced a state of emergency and ordered all opposition
forces in the region "neutralized".
In June 1992, there was an open war between the local
Prorussian government in the Dniéster region and Moldova's
army. The rebels had Tiraspol, Pridnestrovie as their
capital and they managed to maintain their independence.
The Moldovan government has now renounced the use of
force to resolve the conflict. At the same time, there was a
divide between the Moldovan forces that agreed to merge with
Romania and those who advocated an independent Moldovan
During the parliamentary elections, the independence
parties gained a large majority, which allowed Prime
Minister Andrei Sangheli to continue in office. In August,
the country's new constitution came into force declaring the
country as independent and democratic. Two months ago, an
agreement was signed with Moscow to initiate the withdrawal
of Russian troops.