The Lebanese elementary school is divided into two
stages: a compulsory primary school, from the age of 6 to
11, and a secondary school, from the age of 11 to 18.
Literacy is quite high, 90% of the adult population (2007).
Since the 1990s, the proportion of children who do not start
schooling has decreased significantly, and today nine out of
ten children attend primary school. Three quarters of the
students read on in secondary school. The situation was much
more difficult, with a relatively low participation in both
primary and secondary school, in the years following the
long civil war (1975-90), during which, among other things,
many schools were destroyed and universities were often
closed. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Lebanon.
Higher education is given at some forty universities,
including one state, Lebanese University in Beirut. However,
many young people apply abroad for higher education.
Prime Minister al-Hariri launched the "Horizon 2000"
project to rebuild Beirut and implement a constitutional
reform aimed at extending the president's term of office,
thus providing the necessary stability to carry out the
project. At the same time, his plan to reestablish Lebanon's
status as the financial capital of the Middle East continued
The parliamentary elections were conducted in five rounds
between June and September 1996. The turnout was low and
thousands of administrative irregularities were reported.
The ruling party with al-Hariri in the lead gained a
majority, but Hezbollah lost only 1 seat in parliament.
The economy had undergone significant changes in the
period 1992-96. This was reflected in in a reduction of
inflation from 170% to 10% and an increase of 200% in
foreign exchange reserves.
In 1997, the clash between the Hezbollah guerrilla and
the Israeli army, which continued to occupy an 850 km 2
area in southern Lebanon, was re-occupied by Tel Aviv
characterized as a "security zone". This year, the Israeli
military had to note 39 casualties - the largest number
since 1985. The number intensified public Israeli pressure
on the Israeli government to end the war.
In February 1998, Beirut rejected a proposal from Tel
Aviv to re-negotiate a possible withdrawal of Israeli
troops. Lebanon demanded unconditional withdrawal with
reference to, among other things, Security Council
Resolution 425. Israel wanted to conclude a bilateral
agreement to end the partisan attacks. But it was difficult
to imagine an agreement between the two countries without
Syria's consent, and this would be difficult to achieve. The
assessment was that Damascus did not want the conflict in
southern Lebanon resolved. It was intended to contribute to
pressure on Israel during the negotiations between Israel
and Syria on the return of the strategically important Golan
Heights occupied by Israel since June 1967.
On October 15, 98, Parliament elected General Emile
Lahoud as the country's president. He had support from the
military and from Syria. The municipal elections that year
showed increased support for Hezbollah. The Christians got
12 of the 24 seats in the Beirut city council. In December,
Salim al-Hoss was elected new Prime Minister.
The change of government in Israel in July 1999 raised
new hopes for peace. In his election campaign, Ehud Barak
had promised withdrawal of the Israeli occupation forces in
southern Lebanon, and in December he made a plan for
withdrawal from Lebanon, but the final negotiations were
dependent on an agreement with Syria on the return of the
Finally, in March 2000, Israel declared that by July the
country would escape Lebanon - with or without agreement
with that country or with Syria. The Lebanese Prime Minister
initially welcomed the Israeli declaration, but said at the
same time that the withdrawal should take place. a
comprehensive peace settlement between the two countries.
President Lahoud declared that Israel could not expect any
security guarantees from Lebanon until Golan was returned to
Syria or before the problems of Palestinian refugees in
southern Lebanon had been resolved. The withdrawal of
pro-Israeli militia forces led to increasing talks with the
Hezbollah forces, and al-Hoss therefore criticized Israel's
reluctance to enter into a comprehensive peace agreement
during a visit to Damascus in April 2000. A month later, the
clashes with Hezbollah led, that Israel immediately withdrew
its forces from the country. The withdrawal immediately
prompted the Israeli rental army in the area, SLA, to
The Israeli withdrawal in September allowed the area's
residents to take part in the parliamentary elections - for
the first time in almost 30 years. During the election
campaign, both Christians and Muslims, right and left, were
joined by former Prime Minister Hariri, criticizing the
military's interference in the country's politics and the
government's inability to rebuild the economy. The
multimillionaire and his supporters won by a significant
margin the election. President Lahoud, who had otherwise
vehemently opposed Hariri, therefore had no other option but
to appoint him as prime minister in October. The Lebanese
constitution defines the distribution of ministerial posts
based on religion, thus curbing religious rivalry. President
Lahoud belongs to the Maronite (Christian) church, has been
elected by parliament for a 6-year term and must consult
parliament ifbm. the appointment of prime ministers.