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Germany Education


Study in Germany EducationThe division of Germany into two states in 1949 led to the existence of two distinct German educational systems for nearly half a century, which reflected two different political ideologies. In East Germany (GDR), the Soviet model was transformed into a polytechnically oriented 10-year unit school. In West Germany (BRD), a system was established in which the students with school start at the age of six after four consecutive years, Grundschule, were faced with the choice to either continue six years in the Hauptschule, or change to a 6-year school, Realschule, or go to the 9 -year-old and most advanced school, Gymnasium.

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While the system in the East was strongly centralized, the BRD's constitution made its states (Bundesländer) sovereign in school matters, and mainly in higher education, with their own education ministries. At the same time, efforts were made to establish collaboration and some uniformity through a so-called framework plan and a standing Education Ministerial Conference. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Germany.

The criticism that students must choose a school type as early as the age of 10 led to reform activities early in BRD. In the early 1970s, it became free for the states to establish one for every common compulsory school, Gesamtschule, as a rule from grades 5 to 10 (some with a further three high school years). In addition, grades 5 and 6 throughout the country were converted into Orientierungsstufe (Erprobungsstufe), which with preparation gives students two years to choose a school.

With the association of 1990 of the two German states, an adaptation of the eastern system to the west began. In this process, the new states of Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony – Anhalt took the opportunity to establish a school form with a joint Hauptschule and Realschule ("Regelschule", "Mittelschule", "Sekundarschule").

Today, about one fifth of all school pupils go to Hauptschule, and after that most of them start an apprenticeship at companies with usually one day Berufsschule per week (the compulsory school in Germany ranges from 6 to 18 years). Approximately the same number goes to Realschule, whose degree gives access to a broader vocational education through eg. Fachoberschule and thereafter to services in individual and public sector at the intermediate level. While the percentage of Gesamtschule students is about 10% (1997), the Gymnasium students (about 45%) are increasing. The upper secondary school, which now usually has a course system for the last three years (and also available in special forms, eg Wirtschaftsgymnasium(economic high school) and Technisches Gymnasium), concludes with the graduation degree Abitur, which gives general eligibility for admission to universities and colleges.

The German university in modern form has its role model at the University of Berlin, founded by Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1810 (see Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin). At Humboldt-embossed universities, purpose-free research and teaching would be integrated.

In the newly founded BRD, the number of traditional universities increased slowly due to developments in its industrial society, while new vocational colleges were established to a greater extent, for example. Technische Hochschulen, Pädagogische Hochschulen and in the 1970s and 80s, especially the Fachhochschulen. These offer a more internship-oriented education and conclude with a diploma. In the western part of T. there are (1997) more than 300 different colleges, of which over 60 are universities. In two states there are also a few Gesamthochschulen, which have programs from both traditional universities and the Fachhochschulen.

After the association, East German universities were expanded to today 17. Most colleges were merged and converted to 26 Fachhochschulen (the term was not in the GDR). In addition, there are 14 art and music colleges in the new states.

In 1960, only 8% of each year started higher studies, today about one third apply for a study site. More than 1.8 million students (of which 42% are women) are now in Germany, with only about half as many study places and far from as many teachers as would be needed. In June 1996, a special program (Hochschulesonderprogramm) was decided, which (with DM 3.6 billion) between 1996 and 2000 will promote structural improvements and the influx.

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