In the 1950s and up to the country's independence in the
1960s, Congo had one of Africa's best primary school
education through the mission schools. Since then, education
has gradually deteriorated in terms of content and
organization. The primary school is compulsory and free. It
starts at age six and is 6 years old. Secondary school is
also 6 years old, but not compulsory. It is divided into two
cycles: a 2-year preparatory course, then a 4-year
theoretical or vocational education. Up to the middle of the
1990s, the number of primary school pupils was estimated to
be about 60% of the total school-age population, but by the
turn of the century this figure had dropped to about 1/3.
Now, up to 75% of children are estimated to receive some
form of education. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Congo.
There are four national universities in the country, two
of which are in Kinshasa. Some of the higher education is
also provided by some fifty colleges, most of which are
Reading and writing skills among the adult population
(over 15 years) were estimated in 2009 to be 67% (80% for
men and 55% for women). In 1995, education received less
than 1% of the government's total expenditure, but during
the 1990s, grants increased to about 10%.
On May 16, 2005, Parliament met to adopt a constitution
replacing the transitional laws that had otherwise been in
force. There was hope that this move would pave the way for
democracy, national unity and reconciliation. In a December
referendum, the constitution was passed with 84.31% of the
vote. This paved the way for elections in 2006. A new flag
was adopted when the new constitution in February 2006 came
In July 2006, the first free elections were held in 40
years. Kabila got 45% of the vote, winning in the western
part of the country. Former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba
gained 20% and won especially in the eastern part of the
country, where Swahili is the dominant language. Former
Deputy Prime Minister of the First Independent Government,
Antoine Gizenga achieved 13%. Since Kabila did not win a
majority in the first round, one had to wait until the
second round of elections in October. Bemba stated that the
election had been marked by scams. Battles flared up between
supporters of the two candidates, costing 20 lives.
Impressed by the growing tension, 400 UN soldiers were sent
to the capital to stop the violence.
In September, Antoine Gizenga signed a cooperation
agreement with Kabila's AMP. He was to support Kabila during
the second round of elections for the presidential office in
October. in return, Gizenga was supposed to be prime
minister. The second round was won by Kabila with 58% of the
vote. Bemba accepted the result and promised to take the
seat as leader of the opposition.
In December, Antoine Gizenga was elected prime minister.
In February 2007, he was able to present his government
consisting of 59 ministers. In November, the government was
transformed and reduced to 44 ministers. After 40 years of
Western-backed dictatorship and civil war, it has succeeded
in leading the country on a democratic trail.
Swiss President Michel Calmy-Rey declared during a visit
to the Congo in July 2007 that the money Congo's former
dictator Mobuto had stored in Swiss banks would be returned
to the Congolese people. Initially, this amounted to DKK 6.6
million. US $, but it is believed that Mobuto had several
billion US $ in Swiss accounts.
The military conflict in Uganda spread across the Congo
border in 2007-08, and in December 2008, the Uganda, Congo
and the South Sudanese government launched a military
offensive against the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) that
ravaged the Garamba region. The LRA was made responsible for
the murders of 400 villagers in the days around Christmas.
In December 2009, the LRA committed new massacres in the
Haut-Uele province. Acc. Human Rights Watch killed LRA
soldiers 321 villagers in days 13-17. December.