Education has been a high priority of the Communist Party
in China since 1949, although there has at times been great
disagreement over the function and content of education.
During the cultural revolution, much of the higher education
system was abolished, and one of the slogans was: "Rather
red than expert!" During the 1980s this changed.
Professional knowledge and research again gained greater
importance. Since 1985, an overarching goal has been for the
education system to serve socialist modernization in order
to contribute to the country's economic and social
1986, 9-year-olds became compulsory primary school adopted
by the National Congress, and the reform was supposed to
have been implemented in virtually the whole country by the
year 2000. This goal has not yet been met (2005), and there
are major regional differences in the school supply. There
is also a lot of focus on 3-year-old preschools, which is
considered important because most children do not have
siblings. Around 40% of children attend preschool. Most
start at school as 6-year-olds in the cities, as 7-year-olds
in rural areas. After primary school, there are different
types of "continuing schools", where technology, business,
agriculture and health are considered important subjects.
About. 60% of young people continue in high school. In
principle, primary school is free, otherwise school fees
must be paid at all levels of education, and school books
must be purchased by students. Private schools have been
allowed since the early 1980s. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of China.
To enter universities and colleges, students must pass a
state entrance exam. There is a lot of competition to enter
public universities. As a result of the student riots in
1989, an additional year of political studies is now
required before one can start studying. Prior to 1985,
higher education was free, now students must compete for
scholarships given after academic results. Around 7.5% of
young people take higher education.
Before 1949 most of the population was illiterate. In
1999, the proportion of illiterates of the adult population
was reported at approx. 15%.
Chinese civilization has a number of characteristics that
distinguish it from all other civilizations. No other
country can show a similar societal continuity. The basic
pattern of Chinese society goes back over 2,000 years in
history. This societal system has been subject to change and
improvement, but the basic pattern is preserved until modern
China has several times been conquered by people from the
interior of Asia, but this has never led to fundamental
changes in Chinese civilization. The comparatively few
Mongol conquerors gradually became Sinified - made Chinese;
They took over Chinese culture and often became more
conservative than the Chinese themselves. The conquerors
came from the north and the southern parts of China were
never dominated by the foreigners, like the northern part of
the country. China was a big country. Already in the 700s
the country had a population of over 50 million. During the
Han Dynasty - around the year 0 - China had about the same
extent as it has today.
The Han Dynasty coincides with the heyday of the Roman
Empire. But the Roman Empire perished because of internal
dissolution and pressure from outside, and European
civilization entered the period that some historians call
the Dark Ages, when ancient culture and civilization
disintegrated. China has never had a corresponding breach in
its culture and civilization. China, therefore, until modern
times has been the only real superpower in this part of the
world. Chinese culture and civilization spread not only to
the conquerors, but also to the surrounding countries. Not
primarily because of military conquest, but because of the
superiority of Chinese culture and civilization.
It is reason to believe that Chinese civilization was, by
the end of the Middle Ages, superior to all other
civilizations - including European ones.
China had a new heyday during the Tang Dynasty (618-907),
when European civilization was characterized by decay, and
again during the Sung Dynasty (960-1280).
As early as the 3rd century BCE, China began building the
Great Wall to prevent invasions by the barbarians in the
north. The structure ended up being 5,000 km long, but was
ultimately unable to prevent China from being invaded by the
Mongols. In 1276-1368, China was led by Genghis Khan and his
grandson Kublai Khan.
Europeans who visited China after the country was
conquered by the Mongols - from Marco Polo in the 13th
century onwards - were full of admiration for Chinese
culture and civilization. China was not simply an
efficiently organized society. The Chinese had also long
before the Europeans made a number of inventions, such as
gunpowder, the printing press, the compass and ships with
watertight bulkheads. In the 1400s, China sent large
expeditions - of up to 70,000 men - to India, the Persian
Gulf and to East Africa.
Some historians claim that during the Sung Dynasty - when
China experienced strong economic progress and prosperous
trade - there was in fact a possibility of a transition to
an industrial revolution. If the Chinese trade and navy had
been maintained - the Chinese navy was the European superior
in the 1400s - the European advance towards South Asia in
the 1500s might have been given a different character. But
during the Ming dynasty that followed the Mongols, China
withdrew within itself. Trade and shipbuilding ceased.
During the Manchu Dynasty (1644-1912), China had a new
period of prosperity. The Mongolian people who had always
been a threat in the past had now been pacified, and the
Russian advance in Siberia had defiled the Mongolian people
there. But from the mid-1800s, a new threat emerged: Western
capitalist civilization. While Chinese society had always
survived past challenges, it slowly succumbed to the clash
of expanding capitalist civilization.