Education has been a high priority of the Communist Party
in China since 1949, although there has at times been great
disagreement over the function and content of education.
During the cultural revolution, much of the higher education
system was abolished, and one of the slogans was: "Rather
red than expert!" During the 1980s this changed.
Professional knowledge and research again gained greater
importance. Since 1985, an overarching goal has been for the
education system to serve socialist modernization in order
to contribute to the country's economic and social
1986, 9-year-olds became compulsory primary school adopted
by the National Congress, and the reform was supposed to
have been implemented in virtually the whole country by the
year 2000. This goal has not yet been met (2005), and there
are major regional differences in the school supply. There
is also a lot of focus on 3-year-old preschools, which is
considered important because most children do not have
siblings. Around 40% of children attend preschool. Most
start at school as 6-year-olds in the cities, as 7-year-olds
in rural areas. After primary school, there are different
types of "continuing schools", where technology, business,
agriculture and health are considered important subjects.
About. 60% of young people continue in high school. In
principle, primary school is free, otherwise school fees
must be paid at all levels of education, and school books
must be purchased by students. Private schools have been
allowed since the early 1980s. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of China.
To enter universities and colleges, students must pass a
state entrance exam. There is a lot of competition to enter
public universities. As a result of the student riots in
1989, an additional year of political studies is now
required before one can start studying. Prior to 1985,
higher education was free, now students must compete for
scholarships given after academic results. Around 7.5% of
young people take higher education.
Before 1949 most of the population was illiterate. In
1999, the proportion of illiterates of the adult population
was reported at approx. 15%.
Chinese civilization has a number of characteristics that
distinguish it from all other civilizations. No other
country can show a similar societal continuity. The basic
pattern of Chinese society goes back over 2,000 years in
history. This societal system has been subject to change and
improvement, but the basic pattern is preserved until modern
China has several times been conquered by people from the
interior of Asia, but this has never led to fundamental
changes in Chinese civilization. The comparatively few
Mongol conquerors gradually became Sinified - made Chinese;
They took over Chinese culture and often became more
conservative than the Chinese themselves. The conquerors
came from the north and the southern parts of China were
never dominated by the foreigners, like the northern part of
the country. China was a big country. Already in the 700s
the country had a population of over 50 million. During the
Han Dynasty - around the year 0 - China had about the same
extent as it has today.
The Han Dynasty coincides with the heyday of the Roman
Empire. But the Roman Empire perished because of internal
dissolution and pressure from outside, and European
civilization entered the period that some historians call
the Dark Ages, when ancient culture and civilization
disintegrated. China has never had a corresponding breach in
its culture and civilization. China, therefore, until modern
times has been the only real superpower in this part of the
world. Chinese culture and civilization spread not only to
the conquerors, but also to the surrounding countries. Not
primarily because of military conquest, but because of the
superiority of Chinese culture and civilization.
It is reason to believe that Chinese civilization was, by
the end of the Middle Ages, superior to all other
civilizations - including European ones.
China had a new heyday during the Tang Dynasty (618-907),
when European civilization was characterized by decay, and
again during the Sung Dynasty (960-1280).
As early as the 3rd century BCE, China began building the
Great Wall to prevent invasions by the barbarians in the
north. The structure ended up being 5,000 km long, but was
ultimately unable to prevent China from being invaded by the
Mongols. In 1276-1368, China was led by Genghis Khan and his
grandson Kublai Khan.
Europeans who visited China after the country was
conquered by the Mongols - from Marco Polo in the 13th
century onwards - were full of admiration for Chinese
culture and civilization. China was not simply an
efficiently organized society. The Chinese had also long
before the Europeans made a number of inventions, such as
gunpowder, the printing press, the compass and ships with
watertight bulkheads. In the 1400s, China sent large
expeditions - of up to 70,000 men - to India, the Persian
Gulf and to East Africa.
Some historians claim that during the Sung Dynasty - when
China experienced strong economic progress and prosperous
trade - there was in fact a possibility of a transition to
an industrial revolution. If the Chinese trade and navy had
been maintained - the Chinese navy was the European superior
in the 1400s - the European advance towards South Asia in
the 1500s might have been given a different character. But
during the Ming dynasty that followed the Mongols, China
withdrew within itself. Trade and shipbuilding ceased.
During the Manchu Dynasty (1644-1912), China had a new
period of prosperity. The Mongolian people who had always
been a threat in the past had now been pacified, and the
Russian advance in Siberia had defiled the Mongolian people
there. But from the mid-1800s, a new threat emerged: Western
capitalist civilization. While Chinese society had always
survived past challenges, it slowly succumbed to the clash
of expanding capitalist civilization.
Beijing, Beijing, Peiping, China's capital and second largest city (after
Shanghai). In addition to the city itself, a large upland belongs to the
administrative unit Beijing; a total of 16,808 km2, which has status
in line with China's provinces. The population is DKK 19.61 million. (2010).
To the north and west there are approximately 40 km to the Xi Shan and Yan Shan
mountain ranges, which together with the Great Wall previously restricted access
to it, while the landscape to the south and east has always opened up to the
vast agricultural areas of the North China Plain. Geologically, the area
consists of raised sea floor 30-40 meters above sea level
To the southeast, 150 km to the coast, where Tianjin at Bo Hai Bay has the
role of Beijing's port city. The climate is continental temperate monsoon
climate with two dominant seasons. Winter is long and cold, characterized by
cold northwest winds from Siberia. On average, there are 132 annual frost days
and a January temperature of -4.6 °C. In the hot summer, eastern winds bring in
monsoon-like rain from the Pacific. The average temperature in July is 25.8 °C.
The city is divided by a north-south axis and an east-west axis that
intersect at Tiananmen Square (Tiananmen) at the main entrance to the Forbidden
City. Together with the city gates, they formed the basis for a division of the
city into a number of squares. With the Emperor living in the middle, the city
plan reflected the Chinese view of the world, with Beijing being the symbol of
Earth and the Forbidden City symbol of China, the kingdom in the middle.
Since the 1960's, the construction of wide roads for car traffic has meant
that the old city walls have finally been finalized, and partly made it more
difficult to recognize the original city plan. However, the peaceful atmosphere
of Beijing with low farm buildings, where several generations live together, can
still be found in a few small streets, hutongs, in the inner city. Most families
now live in high-rise buildings, which in a few decades have helped transform
the city into a modern, hectic metropolis.
Beijing has retained its old role as a traffic hub with, in addition to a
number of international connections, a large number of train and air services to
all parts of China. However, it has trouble getting the capacity of the railway
station and the airport to keep up with the growing needs arising from economic
The city's public transport, which is primarily based on bus operation, works
well and is supplemented by a subway system under constant development; millions
of passengers are transported daily. In addition, the bicycle is an
indispensable means of transport; bicycles in the millions characterize the
cityscape in the almost completely flat city.
Business has been characterized by Beijing for centuries being the center of
the vast country, and administration, service and education still dominate
employment. During the centralist economic planning period, several
petrochemical, textile and metal-industrial factories were created or expanded,
as were several high-tech companies linked to the military.
Beijing has a versatile industrial structure with production of locomotives,
cars, consumer goods and advanced computer equipment. A relatively new
profession is tourism, which benefits from the city's historic sites and the
Great Chinese Wall and the proximity of the Ming Warrior Tombs to attract many
Chinese and foreign guests.
Agricultural production in the suburbs and the surrounding areas is often
highly specialized and aimed at supplying the metropolitan markets with all
kinds of vegetables, meats and fish. Here, among other things, Chinese cabbage,
maize, poultry, pigs and carp - the latter in countless aquaculture farms, which
are supplied with irrigation canal water.
Beijing's biggest problems are air pollution, water shortages, sandstorms
from Inner Mongolia, traffic jams, unemployment and out-of-date housing. Large
sums are being invested in infrastructure, including the expansion and
modernization of Beijing's international airport and subway, the construction of
a fifth ring road and the establishment of IT infrastructure. Beijing must be
China's pattern city in the field of the environment. Many old residential
neighborhoods are being brutally cleaned up.
In 2001, it was decided to build a new 4 km2 CBD (Central
Business District) area in the city's eastern Chaoyang district. In order to
attract investment from the world's largest multinational corporations and,
according to the Western model, an urban district with a total floor area of
10 million is planned. m 2 divided by 50% for offices, 25% for
housing and 25% for trade, service, culture and recreation.
Beijing hosted the Olympic Games in 2008, and for this purpose, a number of
buildings were erected in a rural facility in the northern part of the city to
run the numerous sports disciplines. The most spectacular are the mighty stadium
with seating for 90,000 spectators, dressed as a bird, and the cubic swimming
Development is regionally and socially skewed. The census results from 2000
showed, among other things, that Beijing has 575,000 illiterates (equivalent to
5% of the population over 15 years), especially among the peasant population in
the city's neighborhoods, but also among the urban migrants.