When Canada became an independent federal state in 1867,
responsibility for all education was added to the provinces.
This scheme was maintained in the Constitution of 1982. The
country's 10 provinces and 3 territories have their own laws
and an education department that supervises academic and
educational supervision of the schools. Some provinces also
have their own Ministry of Higher Education.
In 1967, the Council of Education Ministers (Council
of Ministers of Education, Canada, CMEC) was
established, primarily to collect data and initiate research
and disseminate information of national interest. The
Canadian Education Statistics Council was established
in 1989. It has strengthened cooperation between the
provinces and the federal government. That same year, a
national evaluation instrument for writing, reading and math
skills of elementary school (School Achievement
Indicators Program) designed to assist the provinces in
their planning. The Federal Government bears all expenses
for the education of Indians and Inuit in primary and
secondary schools. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Canada.
Although the school system varies somewhat from province
to province, there are major similarities in the educational
process. The compulsory school starts at the age of 5 or 6
and lasts until the age of 13 or 14. Then follows the 3-5
year high school. Almost all students continue in high
school. Higher education is not differentiated, ie courses
in general and vocational subjects are offered within the
same school. The total schooling is 12 years in most
provinces. The language of instruction is English or French.
About. 6% of students attend private schools.
Higher education is provided at colleges and universities
and at higher vocational schools. About. 60% of young people
take higher education. There are over 275 higher education
institutions in the country, of which 75 have university
status. There are over 200 colleges. Most universities are
Among the largest and most famous are the University of
Toronto, founded in 1827, and McGill University in Montreal,
founded in 1967. Among the major French-speaking
universities are the Université Laval, Quebec, founded in
1852, and the Université de Montréal, founded in 1878.
Although the provinces and territories are self-governing
in education issues, there has been great agreement on the
content of education. In the 1960s and 1970s, content and
teaching methods were the subject of reform and
experimentation. Student-centered learning, "learning by
doing", open school and open teaching were central. In the
1980s and 1990s, these directions have been the subject of
criticism, and new reforms emphasize the core curriculum,
ethnic and gender issues. Statistically, illiteracy does not
exist, but functional illiteracy is a growing problem.