When Canada became an independent federal state in 1867,
responsibility for all education was added to the provinces.
This scheme was maintained in the Constitution of 1982. The
country's 10 provinces and 3 territories have their own laws
and an education department that supervises academic and
educational supervision of the schools. Some provinces also
have their own Ministry of Higher Education.
In 1967, the Council of Education Ministers (Council
of Ministers of Education, Canada, CMEC) was
established, primarily to collect data and initiate research
and disseminate information of national interest. The
Canadian Education Statistics Council was established
in 1989. It has strengthened cooperation between the
provinces and the federal government. That same year, a
national evaluation instrument for writing, reading and math
skills of elementary school (School Achievement
Indicators Program) designed to assist the provinces in
their planning. The Federal Government bears all expenses
for the education of Indians and Inuit in primary and
secondary schools. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Canada.
Although the school system varies somewhat from province
to province, there are major similarities in the educational
process. The compulsory school starts at the age of 5 or 6
and lasts until the age of 13 or 14. Then follows the 3-5
year high school. Almost all students continue in high
school. Higher education is not differentiated, i.e. courses
in general and vocational subjects are offered within the
same school. The total schooling is 12 years in most
provinces. The language of instruction is English or French.
About. 6% of students attend private schools.
Higher education is provided at colleges and universities
and at higher vocational schools. About. 60% of young people
take higher education. There are over 275 higher education
institutions in the country, of which 75 have university
status. There are over 200 colleges. Most universities are
Among the largest and most famous are the University of
Toronto, founded in 1827, and McGill University in Montreal,
founded in 1967. Among the major French-speaking
universities are the Université Laval, Quebec, founded in
1852, and the Université de Montréal, founded in 1878.
Although the provinces and territories are self-governing
in education issues, there has been great agreement on the
content of education. In the 1960s and 1970s, content and
teaching methods were the subject of reform and
experimentation. Student-centered learning, "learning by
doing", open school and open teaching were central. In the
1980s and 1990s, these directions have been the subject of
criticism, and new reforms emphasize the core curriculum,
ethnic and gender issues. Statistically, illiteracy does not
exist, but functional illiteracy is a growing problem.
The Inuit, who are the traditional residents of the
Belcher Islands in the Hudson Bay, and who have
traditionally sailed around hunting and fishing, were not
taken into account at the time of the agreement. Naturally,
they are deeply concerned about the impact on the
environment and their living conditions.
Currently, in Canada there are 326,000 Indigenous people
gathered in 577 groups as well as 25,000 Inuit. At least
100,000 masters and natives - some mention numbers up to
850,000 - are assimilated into the dominant culture. Acc.
the official statistics make up 4% of the total population.
Canada's indigenous population has increasingly quit to
defend their rights. In the 1960-70's, the National
Indigenous Board (NIB) was set up to represent them to the
public and the federal government. A short time ago, the NIB
was replaced by the Organization for First Indigenous
Nations (OFIN). The indigenous peoples demand respect for
the treaties concluded which uphold their rights to land and
other resources. Especially the people who still live by
hunting and fishing like cree, dene, innu,
After World War II, the government took steps to bring
together the indigenous people in a number of small
reserves, and by the early 1970's they were almost all
gathered in such areas. Although Canada officially
recognizes the indigenous peoples' right to their lands, the
state, through agreements, is trying to bring them together
in smaller areas for financial compensation. A new
generation of innuaries made the experience that it had been
a mistake to accept the agreement with the government. A
1984 study found that suicide rates in northern Labrador
were 5 times higher than the Canadian average. In 1988, the
Indians invaded the Goose Bay base and set up a peace camp.
Despite immediate police efforts, the natives succeeded in
interrupting this year's military exercises. Surprisingly, a
court released four natives who were charged with the
intrusion, citing that the concept of land ownership is
something that is very remote from Canada's indigenous
population and therefore there was no basis for a lawsuit
based on English or Canadian law. However, the government
quickly overthrew this remarkable judgment that could have
set a precedent for the indigenous peoples' land claims in