In Brazil, 8-year-olds are compulsory and free primary
school from the children is 7 to 14 years old. About. 97% of
children start primary school. The high school lasts for 3
to 4 years. About. 70% of the 15-17 age group starts in high
school. The operation of primary and secondary schools falls
under the state and municipalities. Education policy has
emphasized decentralization of the education sector since
There are close to 900 higher education institutions, 25%
of which are public and 75% private. 130 of these have
university status. Around 20% take higher education. The
federal government is responsible for higher education. Check topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE as well high schools in the country of Brazil.
There are large regional differences in participation in
education and quality of education, especially between
schools in the southern part of the country and in the
poorer areas of the north. School development has also not
kept pace with population growth. At all levels there are
private schools, most of which are upper secondary and
Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, one of today's
best-known educators, worked to combat illiteracy in Brazil.
He wrote in 1968 the pedagogy of the oppressed. His
ideas have been seen as a contribution to the teaching of
illiteracy throughout the world.
The proportion of illiterate persons has dropped
considerably, but in 2000 it was estimated to be approx. 13%
of the population over the age of 15, roughly equally
divided between men and women.
In the last decades of the 19th century, the gap between
country and city increased sharply. Both between the layers
in the cities, the military and the coffee producers pushed
for a rapid modernization of society. For them, the monarchy
was far too closely tied to the old mode of production and
the cattle owners. The Republic was a more suitable model of
capitalist development, these three layers required. In
1889, a conspiracy among these modernization-oriented layers
gained support in the army. Pedro II abdicated and went into
exile in Europe.
The abolition of slavery and the fall of the monarchy
opened to a period of social, political and economic change
that accelerated modernization, although not without
political, social and religious trauma. The creation and
consolidation of Republican institutions faced serious
difficulties. In 1894, Prudente de Morais was elected the
first civilian president of the republic. By 1893, the
Federal Republican Party had been formed, and the same year
and the following it revolted in the Navy.
In 1893-95, Brazil experienced a federalist revolution in
the Rio Grande do Sul. In 1896-97, the people of Sertao
in northeastern Brazil supported the Canudo War, where a
religious community faced the authorities. It was first
crushed when federal troops were deployed. The latter war
became largely a symbol of the clash between the poor,
illiterate and fanatical inner Brazil and the besieged
coastal area, which was in rapid economic development and
closely linked to modernization.
Until 1920, social uprisings, authoritarian explosions in
the northeastern certao and the fighting between
regional oligarchs were all frequent. An electoral body had
not yet been set up, voting was not secret and
dissatisfaction with the election results was chronic. It
was no wonder, since in many cases it said deceased on the
lists. The period from the creation of the republic to 1930
is also called the "old republic."
On the economic level, coffee emerged as the most
important export item. World War I, 1914-18, was for Brazil
an almost euphoric economic period, as the country was one
of the largest suppliers of consumer goods to the countries
at war.. But in 1920-30, coffee became a problem for the
Brazilian economy. International competition reduced sales,
and with the outbreak of the world crisis in 1929, Brazil
burned 29 million bags of coffee that could not be sold.